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The clinical and biological significance of HER2 over-expression in breast ductal carcinoma in situ: a large study from a single institution (2019)
Journal Article
Miligy, I. M., Toss, M. S., Gorringe, K. L., Lee, A. H., Ellis, I. O., Green, A. R., & Rakha, E. (in press). The clinical and biological significance of HER2 over-expression in breast ductal carcinoma in situ: a large study from a single institution. British Journal of Cancer,

Background: Previous studies have reported up to 50% of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), is HER2 positive, but the frequency of HER2 positive invasive breast cancer (IBC) is lower. The aim of this study is to characterise HER2 status in DCIS and asse... Read More

SHON expression predicts response and relapse risk of breast cancer patients after anthracycline-based combination chemotherapy or tamoxifen treatment (2019)
Journal Article
Abdel-Fatah, T. M., Broom, R. J., Lu, J., Moseley, P. M., Huang, B., Li, L., …Liu, D. (2019). SHON expression predicts response and relapse risk of breast cancer patients after anthracycline-based combination chemotherapy or tamoxifen treatment. British Journal of Cancer, 120, 728–745. doi:10.1038/s41416-019-0405-x

BACKGROUND: SHON nuclear expression (SHON-Nuc+) was previously reported to predict clinical outcomes to tamoxifen therapy in ERα+ breast cancer (BC). Herein we determined if SHON expression detected by specific monoclonal antibodies could provide a m... Read More

Surgical Management of Ductal Carcinoma in Situ (DCIS) of the Breast; a large retrospective study from a single institution (2019)
Journal Article
Miligy, I. M., Toss, M. S., Khout, H., Hc, B., Ellis, I. O., Green, A. R., …Rakha, E. (in press). Surgical Management of Ductal Carcinoma in Situ (DCIS) of the Breast; a large retrospective study from a single institution. Breast Journal,

Background: Management of breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) has various approaches with distinct institutional specific practice. Here, we review DCIS management in a single institution with emphasise on re-operation rates and outcome. Methods:... Read More

The molecular mechanisms underlying reduced E-cadherin expression in invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast: high throughput analysis of large cohorts (2019)
Journal Article
Alsaleem, M., Toss, M. S., Joseph, C., Aleskandarany, M., Kurozumi, S., Alshankyty, I., …Rakha, E. A. (2019). The molecular mechanisms underlying reduced E-cadherin expression in invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast: high throughput analysis of large cohorts. Modern Pathology, doi:10.1038/s41379-019-0209-9

E-cadherin is a tumor suppressor gene in invasive lobular breast cancer. However, a proportion of high-grade ductal carcinoma shows reduced/loss of E-cadherin. In this study, we assessed the underlying mechanisms and mole... Read More

Clinicopathological significance of ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) kinase and ataxia telangiectasia-mutated and Rad3 related (ATR) kinase in MYC overexpressed breast cancers (2019)
Journal Article
Savva, C., De Souza, K., Ali, R., Rakha, E. A., Green, A. R., & Madhusudan, S. (2019). Clinicopathological significance of ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) kinase and ataxia telangiectasia-mutated and Rad3 related (ATR) kinase in MYC overexpressed breast cancers. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, doi:10.1007/s10549-018-05113-8

Purpose: MYC transcription factor has critical roles in cell growth, proliferation, metabolism, differentiation, transformation and angiogenesis. MYC overexpression is seen in about 15% of breast cancers and linked to aggressive phenotypes. MYC overe... Read More

The prognostic significance of lysosomal protective protein (Cathepsin A) in breast ductal carcinoma in situ (2019)
Journal Article
Toss, M. S., Miligy, I. M., Haj-Ahmad, R., Gorringe, K. L., AlKawaz, A., Mittal, K., …Rakha, E. A. (2019). The prognostic significance of lysosomal protective protein (Cathepsin A) in breast ductal carcinoma in situ. Histopathology, doi:10.1111/his.13835

Background: Cathepsin A (CTSA) is a key regulatory enzyme for galactoside metabolism. Additionally, it has a distinct proteolytic activity and plays a role in tumour progression. CTSA is differentially expressed at the mRNA level between br... Read More

Liver kinase B1 (LKB1) – a potential therapeutic target in hormone sensitive breast cancer in older women (2019)
Journal Article
Syed, B. M., Green, A. R., Morgan, D. A., Ellis, I. O., & Cheung, K. (2019). Liver kinase B1 (LKB1) – a potential therapeutic target in hormone sensitive breast cancer in older women. Cancers, 11(2), 1-17

Background: The role of liver kinase B1 (LKB1), a serine/threonine kinase, has been described in the development of PeutzJagher’s syndrome, where a proportion (~45%) of patients have developed breast cancer in their lifetime. Cell line studies have l... Read More

The combined expression of solute carriers is associated with a poor prognosis in highly proliferative ER+ breast cancer (2019)
Journal Article
El Ansari, R., Craze, M. L., Alfarsi, L., Soria, D., Diez- Rodriguez, M., Nolan, C. C., …Green, A. R. (2019). The combined expression of solute carriers is associated with a poor prognosis in highly proliferative ER+ breast cancer. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, doi:10.1007/s10549-018-05111-w

Purpose: Breast cancer (BC) is a heterogeneous disease characterised by variant biology, metabolic activity, and patient outcome. Glutamine availability for growth and progression of BC is important in several BC sub... Read More

Expression of Lamin A/C in early-stage breast cancer and its prognostic value (2019)
Journal Article
Alhudiri, I., Nolan, C., Ellis, I., Elzagheid, A., Rakha, E., Green, A., & Chapman, C. (2019). Expression of Lamin A/C in early-stage breast cancer and its prognostic value. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 174(3), 661–668. doi:10.1007/s10549-018-05092-w

Purpose: Lamins A/C, a major component of the nuclear lamina, plays key roles in maintaining nuclear integrity, regulation of gene expression, cell proliferation and apoptosis. Reduced lamin A/C expression in cancer has been reported to be a sign of... Read More

Overexpression of the cancer stem cell marker CD133 confers a poor prognosis in invasive breast cancer (2018)
Journal Article
Joseph, C., Arshad, M., Kurozomi, S., Althobiti, M., Miligy, I. M., Al-Izzi, S., …Rakha, E. A. (2019). Overexpression of the cancer stem cell marker CD133 confers a poor prognosis in invasive breast cancer. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 174(2), 387-399. doi:10.1007/s10549-018-05085-9

Purpose CD133/ prominin 1 is a cancer stem cell marker associated with cancer progression and patient outcome in a variety of solid tumours, but its role in invasive breast cancer (BC) remains obscure. The current study aims to assess the prognostic... Read More

Glutamate dehydrogenase (GLUD1) expression in breast cancer (2018)
Journal Article
Craze, M. L., El-Ansari, R., Aleskandarany, M. A., Cheng, K. W., Al-Farsi, L., Masisi, B., …Green, A. R. (2019). Glutamate dehydrogenase (GLUD1) expression in breast cancer. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 174(1), 79–91

Dysregulated cellular metabolism is regarded as one of the hallmarks of cancer with some tumours utilising the glutamine metabolism pathway for their sustained proliferation and survival. Glutamate dehydrogenase (GLUD1) is a key enzyme in glutaminoly... Read More

Legumain is an independent predictor for invasive recurrence in breast ductal carcinoma in situ (2018)
Journal Article
Toss, M. S., Miligy, I. M., Gorringe, K. L., McCaffrey, L., Alkawaz, A., Abidi, A., …Rakha, E. A. (2018). Legumain is an independent predictor for invasive recurrence in breast ductal carcinoma in situ. Modern Pathology, doi:10.1038/s41379-018-0180-x

Legumain is a proteolytic enzyme and playing a role in the regulation of cell proliferation in invasive breast cancer. Studies evaluating its role in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) are lacking. Here, we aimed to characterise legumain protein express... Read More

Prolyl-4-hydroxylase Α subunit 2 (P4HA2) expression is a predictor of poor outcome in breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) (2018)
Journal Article
Toss, M. S., Miligy, I. M., Gorringe, K. L., Alkawaz, A., Khout, H., Ellis, I. O., …Rakha, E. (2018). Prolyl-4-hydroxylase Α subunit 2 (P4HA2) expression is a predictor of poor outcome in breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). British Journal of Cancer, 119, 1518–1526. doi:10.1038/s41416-018-0337-x

Background: Extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a crucial role in tumour behaviour. Prolyl-4-hydroxlase-A2 (P4HA2) is a key enzyme in ECM remodelling. This study aims to evaluate the prognostic significance of P4HA2 in breast ductal carcinoma in situ (D... Read More

Co-expression of nuclear P38 and hormone receptors is prognostic of good long-term clinical outcome in primary breast cancer and is linked to upregulation of DNA repair (2018)
Journal Article
Johnston, S. J., Ahmad, D., Aleskandarany, M. A., Kurozumi, S., Nolan, C. C., Diez-Rodriguez, M., …Rakha, E. A. (2018). Co-expression of nuclear P38 and hormone receptors is prognostic of good long-term clinical outcome in primary breast cancer and is linked to upregulation of DNA repair. BMC Cancer, 18, doi:10.1186/s12885-018-4924-2

Kinesin family member-18A (KIF18A) is a predictive biomarker of poor benefit from endocrine therapy in early ER+ breast cancer (2018)
Journal Article
Alfarsi, L. H., Elansari, R., Toss, M. S., Diez-Rodriguez, M., Nolan, C. C., Ellis, I. O., …Green, A. R. (2018). Kinesin family member-18A (KIF18A) is a predictive biomarker of poor benefit from endocrine therapy in early ER+ breast cancer. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, doi:10.1007/s10549-018-4978-5

PURPOSE: Identification of effective and reliable biomarkers that could be used to predict the efficacy of endocrine therapy is of crucial importance to the management of oestrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer (BC). KIF18A, a key regulator o... Read More

Targeting PARP1 in XRCC1 deficient sporadic invasive breast cancer or pre-invasive ductal carcinoma in situ induces synthetic lethality and chemoprevention (2018)
Journal Article
Ali, R., Al-kawaz, A., Toss, M. S., Green, A. R., Miligy, I. M., Mesquita, K. A., …Madhusudan, S. (2018). Targeting PARP1 in XRCC1 deficient sporadic invasive breast cancer or pre-invasive ductal carcinoma in situ induces synthetic lethality and chemoprevention. Cancer Research, doi:10.1158/0008-5472.can-18-0633

Targeting PARP1 for synthetic lethality is a new strategy for breast cancers harboring germline mutations in BRCA. However, these mutations are rare, and reactivation of BRCA-mediated pathways may result in eventual resistance to PARP1 inhibitor ther... Read More

An end-to-end deep learning histochemical scoring system for breast cancer TMA (2018)
Journal Article
Liu, J., Xu, B., Zheng, C., Gong, Y., Garibaldi, J., Soria, D., …Qiu, G. (2019). An end-to-end deep learning histochemical scoring system for breast cancer TMA. IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, 38(2), 617-628. doi:10.1109/TMI.2018.2868333

One of the methods for stratifying different molecular classes of breast cancer is the Nottingham prognostic index plus, which uses breast cancer relevant biomarkers to stain tumor tissues prepared on tissue microarray (TMA). To determine the molecul... Read More

The role of PIP5K1α/pAKT and targeted inhibition of growth of subtypes of breast cancer using PIP5K1α inhibitor (2018)
Journal Article
Sarwar, M., Syed Khaja, A. S., Aleskandarany, M., Karlsson, R., Althobiti, M., Ødum, N., …Persson, J. L. (2018). The role of PIP5K1α/pAKT and targeted inhibition of growth of subtypes of breast cancer using PIP5K1α inhibitor. Oncogene, doi:10.1038/s41388-018-0438-2

Despite recent improvement in adjuvant therapies, triple-negative, and ER+ subtypes of breast cancer (BC) with metastatic potentials remain the leading cause of BC-related deaths. We investigated the role of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase... Read More

Clinicopathological and prognostic significance of Ras association and pleckstrin homology domains 1 (RAPH1) in breast cancer (2018)
Journal Article
Kurozumi, S., Joseph, C., Sonbul, S., Aleskandarany, M. A., Pigera, M., Alsaleem, M., …Rakha, E. A. (2018). Clinicopathological and prognostic significance of Ras association and pleckstrin homology domains 1 (RAPH1) in breast cancer. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 172(1), 61–68. doi:10.1007/s10549-018-4891-y

BACKGROUND: Ras association and pleckstrin homology domains 1 (RAPH1) is involved in cytoskeleton regulation and re-epithelialisation in invasive carcinoma and therefore may play a key role in carcinogenesis and metastasis. We herein investigated the... Read More