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The prognostic significance of Cathepsin V (CTSV/CTSL2) in breast ductal carcinoma in situ (2019)
Journal Article
Toss, M. S., Miligy, I. M., Gorringe, K. L., Mittal, K., Green, A. R., Aneja, R., …Rakha, E. A. (in press). The prognostic significance of Cathepsin V (CTSV/CTSL2) in breast ductal carcinoma in situ. Journal of Clinical Pathology,

Aims: Cathepsin V (CTSV/CTSL2) is a lysosomal cystine proteinase and plays a role in extracellular matrix degradation. It is associated with poor prognosis in invasive breast cancer (IBC), but its role in breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) remain... Read More

Surgical management of ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast: a large retrospective study from a single institution (2019)
Journal Article
Miligy, I. M., Toss, M. S., Khout, H., Hc, B., Ellis, I. O., Green, A. R., …Rakha, E. (2019). Surgical management of ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast: a large retrospective study from a single institution. Breast Journal, doi:10.1111/tbj.13425

Background: Management of breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) has various approaches with distinct institutional specific practice. Here, we review DCIS management in a single institution with emphasise on re-operation rates and outcome. Methods:... Read More

Enhanced glutamine uptake influence composition of immune cells infiltrates in breast cancer (2019)
Journal Article
Ansari, R. E., Craze, M. L., Althobiti, M., Alfarsi, L., Ellis, I. O., Rakha, E. A., & Green, A. R. (in press). Enhanced glutamine uptake influence composition of immune cells infiltrates in breast cancer. British Journal of Cancer,

Background: Cancer cells must alter their metabolism to support proliferation. Immune evasion also plays a role in supporting tumour progression. This study aimed to find whether enhanced glutamine uptake in breast cancer (BC) can derive the existenc... Read More

Geometric characteristics of collagen have independent prognostic significance in breast ductal carcinoma in situ: An image analysis study (2019)
Journal Article
Toss, M. S., Miligy, I. M., Gorringe, K. L., Alkawaz, A., Mittal, K., Aneja, R., …Rakha, E. A. (2019). Geometric characteristics of collagen have independent prognostic significance in breast ductal carcinoma in situ: An image analysis study. Modern Pathology, doi:10.1038/s41379-019-0296-7

Collagen plays a key role in normal and malignant tissue homeostasis. While the prognostic significance of collagen fibre remodeling in invasive breast cancer has been studied, its role in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) remains poorly defined. Using... Read More

Collagen (XI) alpha-1 chain (COL11A1) is an independent prognostic factor in breast ductal carcinoma in situ (2019)
Journal Article
Toss, M. S., Miligy, I. M., Gorringe, K. L., Aleskandarany, M. A., Alkawaz, A., Mittal, K., …Rakha, E. A. (2019). Collagen (XI) alpha-1 chain (COL11A1) is an independent prognostic factor in breast ductal carcinoma in situ. Modern Pathology,

Collagen11A1 (COL11A1) is a fibrillary type collagen constituting a minor component of the extracellular matrix and plays role in tissue tensile strength. Overexpression of COL11A1 expression is associated with aggressive behavior and poor outcome in... Read More

A Key Genomic Subtype Associated with Lymphovascular Invasion in Invasive Breast Cancer (2019)
Journal Article
Kurozumi, S., Joseph, C., Alsaeed, S., Kariri, Y., Aljohani, A., Raafat, S., …Rakha, E. A. (2019). A Key Genomic Subtype Associated with Lymphovascular Invasion in Invasive Breast Cancer. British Journal of Cancer, 120, 1129–1136. doi:10.1038/s41416-019-0486-6

Background: Lymphovascular invasion (LVI) is associated with the development of metastasis in invasive breast cancer (BC). However, the complex molecular mechanisms of LVI, which overlap with other oncogenic pathways, remain unclear. This study, usin... Read More

The clinical and biological significance of HER2 over-expression in breast ductal carcinoma in situ: a large study from a single institution (2019)
Journal Article
Miligy, I. M., Toss, M. S., Gorringe, K. L., Lee, A. H., Ellis, I. O., Green, A. R., & Rakha, E. (2019). The clinical and biological significance of HER2 over-expression in breast ductal carcinoma in situ: a large study from a single institution. British Journal of Cancer, 120, 1075–1082. doi:10.1038/s41416-019-0436-3

Background: Previous studies have reported up to 50% of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), is HER2 positive, but the frequency of HER2 positive invasive breast cancer (IBC) is lower. The aim of this study is to characterise HER2 status in DCIS and asse... Read More

SHON expression predicts response and relapse risk of breast cancer patients after anthracycline-based combination chemotherapy or tamoxifen treatment (2019)
Journal Article
Abdel-Fatah, T. M., Broom, R. J., Lu, J., Moseley, P. M., Huang, B., Li, L., …Liu, D. (2019). SHON expression predicts response and relapse risk of breast cancer patients after anthracycline-based combination chemotherapy or tamoxifen treatment. British Journal of Cancer, 120, 728–745. doi:10.1038/s41416-019-0405-x

BACKGROUND: SHON nuclear expression (SHON-Nuc+) was previously reported to predict clinical outcomes to tamoxifen therapy in ERα+ breast cancer (BC). Herein we determined if SHON expression detected by specific monoclonal antibodies could provide a m... Read More

The molecular mechanisms underlying reduced E-cadherin expression in invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast: high throughput analysis of large cohorts (2019)
Journal Article
Rida, P. C. G., Alsaleem, M., Toss, M. S., Joseph, C., Aleskandarany, M., Kurozumi, S., …Rakha, E. A. (2019). The molecular mechanisms underlying reduced E-cadherin expression in invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast: high throughput analysis of large cohorts. Modern Pathology, doi:10.1038/s41379-019-0209-9

E-cadherin is a tumor suppressor gene in invasive lobular breast cancer. However, a proportion of high-grade ductal carcinoma shows reduced/loss of E-cadherin. In this study, we assessed the underlying mechanisms and mole... Read More

Clinicopathological significance of ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) kinase and ataxia telangiectasia-mutated and Rad3 related (ATR) kinase in MYC overexpressed breast cancers (2019)
Journal Article
Savva, C., De Souza, K., Ali, R., Rakha, E. A., Green, A. R., & Madhusudan, S. (2019). Clinicopathological significance of ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) kinase and ataxia telangiectasia-mutated and Rad3 related (ATR) kinase in MYC overexpressed breast cancers. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 175(1), 105–115. doi:10.1007/s10549-018-05113-8

Purpose: MYC transcription factor has critical roles in cell growth, proliferation, metabolism, differentiation, transformation and angiogenesis. MYC overexpression is seen in about 15% of breast cancers and linked to aggressive phenotypes. MYC overe... Read More

The prognostic significance of lysosomal protective protein (Cathepsin A) in breast ductal carcinoma in situ (2019)
Journal Article
Toss, M. S., Miligy, I. M., Haj-Ahmad, R., Gorringe, K. L., AlKawaz, A., Mittal, K., …Rakha, E. A. (2019). The prognostic significance of lysosomal protective protein (Cathepsin A) in breast ductal carcinoma in situ. Histopathology, doi:10.1111/his.13835

Background: Cathepsin A (CTSA) is a key regulatory enzyme for galactoside metabolism. Additionally, it has a distinct proteolytic activity and plays a role in tumour progression. CTSA is differentially expressed at the mRNA level between br... Read More

Liver kinase B1 (LKB1) – a potential therapeutic target in hormone sensitive breast cancer in older women (2019)
Journal Article
Syed, B. M., Green, A. R., Morgan, D. A., Ellis, I. O., & Cheung, K. (2019). Liver kinase B1 (LKB1) – a potential therapeutic target in hormone sensitive breast cancer in older women. Cancers, 11(2), 1-17

Background: The role of liver kinase B1 (LKB1), a serine/threonine kinase, has been described in the development of PeutzJagher’s syndrome, where a proportion (~45%) of patients have developed breast cancer in their lifetime. Cell line studies have l... Read More

The combined expression of solute carriers is associated with a poor prognosis in highly proliferative ER+ breast cancer (2019)
Journal Article
El-Ansari, R., El Ansari, R., Craze, M. L., Alfarsi, L., Soria, D., Diez-Rodriguez, M., …Green, A. R. (2019). The combined expression of solute carriers is associated with a poor prognosis in highly proliferative ER+ breast cancer. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 175(1), 27-38. doi:10.1007/s10549-018-05111-w

Purpose: Breast cancer (BC) is a heterogeneous disease characterised by variant biology, metabolic activity, and patient outcome. Glutamine availability for growth and progression of BC is important in several BC sub... Read More

Expression of Lamin A/C in early-stage breast cancer and its prognostic value (2019)
Journal Article
Alhudiri, I., Nolan, C., Ellis, I., Elzagheid, A., Rakha, E., Green, A., & Chapman, C. (2019). Expression of Lamin A/C in early-stage breast cancer and its prognostic value. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 174(3), 661–668. doi:10.1007/s10549-018-05092-w

Purpose: Lamins A/C, a major component of the nuclear lamina, plays key roles in maintaining nuclear integrity, regulation of gene expression, cell proliferation and apoptosis. Reduced lamin A/C expression in cancer has been reported to be a sign of... Read More

Overexpression of the cancer stem cell marker CD133 confers a poor prognosis in invasive breast cancer (2018)
Journal Article
Joseph, C., Arshad, M., Kurozomi, S., Althobiti, M., Miligy, I. M., Al-Izzi, S., …Rakha, E. A. (2019). Overexpression of the cancer stem cell marker CD133 confers a poor prognosis in invasive breast cancer. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 174(2), 387-399. doi:10.1007/s10549-018-05085-9

Purpose CD133/ prominin 1 is a cancer stem cell marker associated with cancer progression and patient outcome in a variety of solid tumours, but its role in invasive breast cancer (BC) remains obscure. The current study aims to assess the prognostic... Read More

Glutamate dehydrogenase (GLUD1) expression in breast cancer (2018)
Journal Article
Craze, M. L., El-Ansari, R., Aleskandarany, M. A., Cheng, K. W., Al-Farsi, L., Masisi, B., …Green, A. R. (2019). Glutamate dehydrogenase (GLUD1) expression in breast cancer. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 174(1), 79–91

Dysregulated cellular metabolism is regarded as one of the hallmarks of cancer with some tumours utilising the glutamine metabolism pathway for their sustained proliferation and survival. Glutamate dehydrogenase (GLUD1) is a key enzyme in glutaminoly... Read More

Legumain is an independent predictor for invasive recurrence in breast ductal carcinoma in situ (2018)
Journal Article
Toss, M. S., Miligy, I. M., Gorringe, K. L., McCaffrey, L., Alkawaz, A., Abidi, A., …Rakha, E. A. (2018). Legumain is an independent predictor for invasive recurrence in breast ductal carcinoma in situ. Modern Pathology, 32, 639–649. doi:10.1038/s41379-018-0180-x

Legumain is a proteolytic enzyme and playing a role in the regulation of cell proliferation in invasive breast cancer. Studies evaluating its role in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) are lacking. Here, we aimed to characterise legumain protein express... Read More

Prolyl-4-hydroxylase Α subunit 2 (P4HA2) expression is a predictor of poor outcome in breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) (2018)
Journal Article
Toss, M. S., Miligy, I. M., Gorringe, K. L., Alkawaz, A., Khout, H., Ellis, I. O., …Rakha, E. (2018). Prolyl-4-hydroxylase Α subunit 2 (P4HA2) expression is a predictor of poor outcome in breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). British Journal of Cancer, 119, 1518–1526. doi:10.1038/s41416-018-0337-x

Background: Extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a crucial role in tumour behaviour. Prolyl-4-hydroxlase-A2 (P4HA2) is a key enzyme in ECM remodelling. This study aims to evaluate the prognostic significance of P4HA2 in breast ductal carcinoma in situ (D... Read More