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Multiparametric Renal Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Prediction and Annual Monitoring of the Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease over Two Years (2023)
Journal Article
Buchanan, C. E., Mahmoud, H., Cox, E. F., Prestwich, B. L., Noble, R. A., Selby, N. M., …Francis, S. T. (2023). Multiparametric Renal Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Prediction and Annual Monitoring of the Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease over Two Years. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 12(23), Article 7282. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12237282

Background: Multiparametric renal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) provides a non-invasive method to assess kidney structure and function, but longitudinal studies are limited. Methods: A total of 22 patients with CKD category G3-4 (estimated glomeru... Read More about Multiparametric Renal Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Prediction and Annual Monitoring of the Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease over Two Years.

Multiorgan MRI findings after hospitalisation with COVID-19 in the UK (C-MORE): a prospective, multicentre, observational cohort study (2023)
Journal Article
C-MORE/PHOSP-COVID Collaborative Group, Raman, B., McCracken, C., Cassar, M. P., Moss, A. J., Finnigan, L., …Francis, S. (2023). Multiorgan MRI findings after hospitalisation with COVID-19 in the UK (C-MORE): a prospective, multicentre, observational cohort study. Lancet Respiratory Medicine, 11(11), 1003-1019. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600%2823%2900262-X

Introduction The multiorgan impact of moderate to severe coronavirus infections in the post-acute phase is still poorly understood. We aimed to evaluate the excess burden of multiorgan abnormalities after hospitalisation with COVID-19, evaluate thei... Read More about Multiorgan MRI findings after hospitalisation with COVID-19 in the UK (C-MORE): a prospective, multicentre, observational cohort study.

Randomised trial comparing standard versus thermocontrolled haemodialysis using intradialytic cardiac, brain and renal magnetic resonance imaging (2023)
Journal Article
Gullapudi, V. R. L., Cox, E. F., Buchanan, C. E., Canaud, B., White, K., Taal, M. W., …Francis, S. T. (2024). Randomised trial comparing standard versus thermocontrolled haemodialysis using intradialytic cardiac, brain and renal magnetic resonance imaging. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 39(2), 233–241. https://doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfad150

Background Ischaemic end-organ damage during haemodialysis (HD) is a significant problem that may be ameliorated by intradialytic cooling. A randomised trial was performed to compare standard HD (SHD; dialysate temperature 37°C) and programmed cooli... Read More about Randomised trial comparing standard versus thermocontrolled haemodialysis using intradialytic cardiac, brain and renal magnetic resonance imaging.

Renal MRI: From Nephron to NMR Signal (2023)
Journal Article
Bane, O., Seeliger, E., Cox, E., Stabinska, J., Bechler, E., Lewis, S., …Niendorf, T. (2023). Renal MRI: From Nephron to NMR Signal. Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, https://doi.org/10.1002/jmri.28828

Renal diseases pose a significant socio-economic burden on healthcare systems. The development of better diagnostics and prognostics is well-recognized as a key strategy to resolve these challenges. Central to these developments are MRI biomarkers, d... Read More about Renal MRI: From Nephron to NMR Signal.

Variability of noninvasive MRI and biological markers in compensated cirrhosis: insights for assessing disease progression (2022)
Journal Article
Bradley, C. R., Cox, E. F., Palaniyappan, N., Aithal, G. P., Francis, S. T., & Guha, I. N. (2022). Variability of noninvasive MRI and biological markers in compensated cirrhosis: insights for assessing disease progression. European Radiology Experimental, 6(1), Article 52. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41747-022-00303-y

Abstract: Background: We annually monitored stable compensated cirrhosis (CC) patients to evaluate serial variation in blood serum, liver stiffness, and multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) measures to provide reference change values (R... Read More about Variability of noninvasive MRI and biological markers in compensated cirrhosis: insights for assessing disease progression.

Decreased renal perfusion during acute kidney injury in critical COVID-19 assessed by magnetic resonance imaging: a prospective case control study (2022)
Journal Article
Luther, T., Eckerbom, P., Cox, E., Lipcsey, M., Bülow, S., Hultström, M., …Liss, P. (2022). Decreased renal perfusion during acute kidney injury in critical COVID-19 assessed by magnetic resonance imaging: a prospective case control study. Critical Care, 26(1), 262. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13054-022-04132-8

Abstract: Background: Renal hypoperfusion has been suggested to contribute to the development of acute kidney injury (AKI) in critical COVID-19. However, limited data exist to support this. We aim to investigate the differences in renal perfusion, ox... Read More about Decreased renal perfusion during acute kidney injury in critical COVID-19 assessed by magnetic resonance imaging: a prospective case control study.

Automated renal segmentation in healthy and chronic kidney disease subjects using a convolutional neural network (2021)
Journal Article
Daniel, A., Buchanan, C., Allcock, T., Scerri, D., Cox, E., Prestwich, B., & Francis, S. (2021). Automated renal segmentation in healthy and chronic kidney disease subjects using a convolutional neural network. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 86(2), 1125-1136. https://doi.org/10.1002/mrm.28768

Purpose: Total Kidney Volume (TKV) is an important measure in renal disease detection and monitoring. We developed a fully automated method to segment the kidneys from T2-weighted magnetic resonance images (MRI) to calculate TKV of healthy control (H... Read More about Automated renal segmentation in healthy and chronic kidney disease subjects using a convolutional neural network.

Multiparametric MRI assessment of renal structure and function in acute kidney injury and renal recovery (2021)
Journal Article
Buchanan, C., Mahmoud, H., Cox, E., Noble, R., Prestwich, B., Kasmi, I., …Selby, N. M. (2021). Multiparametric MRI assessment of renal structure and function in acute kidney injury and renal recovery. Clinical Kidney Journal, 14(8), 1969-1976. https://doi.org/10.1093/ckj/sfaa221

Background: Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is associated with a marked increase in mortality as well as subsequent chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end stage kidney disease. We performed multiparametric MRI with the aim of identifying potential non-invasi... Read More about Multiparametric MRI assessment of renal structure and function in acute kidney injury and renal recovery.

Circadian variation in renal blood flow and kidney function in healthy volunteers monitored using non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (2020)
Journal Article
Eckerbom, P., Hansell, P., Cox, E., Buchanan, C., Weis, J., Palm, F., …Liss, P. (2020). Circadian variation in renal blood flow and kidney function in healthy volunteers monitored using non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging. AJP - Renal Physiology, 319(6), F966-F978. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajprenal.00311.2020

Circadian regulation of kidney function is involved in maintaining whole-body homeostasis and dysfunctional circadian rhythm can potentially be involved in disease development. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)provides reliable and reproducible repeti... Read More about Circadian variation in renal blood flow and kidney function in healthy volunteers monitored using non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging.

Consensus-based technical recommendations for clinical translation of renal ASL MRI (2019)
Journal Article
Nery, F., Buchanan, C. E., Harteveld, A. A., Odudu, A., Bane, O., Cox, E. F., …Fernández-Seara, M. A. (2020). Consensus-based technical recommendations for clinical translation of renal ASL MRI. Magnetic Resonance Materials in Physics, Biology and Medicine, 33(1), 141-161. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10334-019-00800-z

Objectives: To develop technical recommendations for the acquisition, processing and analysis of renal ASL data in the human kidney at 1.5T and 3T field strengths that can promote standardization of renal perfusion measurements and facilitate the com... Read More about Consensus-based technical recommendations for clinical translation of renal ASL MRI.

Consensus-based technical recommendations for clinical translation of renal T1 and T2 mapping MRI (2019)
Journal Article
Semple, S. I. K., Dekkers, I. A., de Boer, A., Sharma, K., Cox, E. F., Lamb, H. J., …Francis, S. (2020). Consensus-based technical recommendations for clinical translation of renal T1 and T2 mapping MRI. Magnetic Resonance Materials in Physics, Biology and Medicine, 33(1), 163-176. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10334-019-00797-5

© 2019, The Author(s). To develop technical recommendations on the acquisition and post-processing of renal longitudinal (T1) and transverse (T2) relaxation time mapping. A multidisciplinary panel consisting of 18 experts in the field of renal T1 and... Read More about Consensus-based technical recommendations for clinical translation of renal T1 and T2 mapping MRI.

A randomized, controlled, double-blind crossover study on the effects of isoeffective and isovolumetric intravenous crystalloid and gelatin on blood volume, and renal and cardiac hemodynamics (2019)
Journal Article
Bradley, C. R., Bragg, D. D., Cox, E. F., El-Sharkawy, A. M., Buchanan, C. E., Chowdhury, A. H., …Lobo, D. N. (2020). A randomized, controlled, double-blind crossover study on the effects of isoeffective and isovolumetric intravenous crystalloid and gelatin on blood volume, and renal and cardiac hemodynamics. Clinical Nutrition, 39(7), 2070-2079. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2019.09.011

Background & aims Blood volume expanding properties of colloids are superior to crystalloids. In addition to oncotic/osmotic properties, the electrolyte composition of infusions may have important effects on visceral perfusion, with infusions contai... Read More about A randomized, controlled, double-blind crossover study on the effects of isoeffective and isovolumetric intravenous crystalloid and gelatin on blood volume, and renal and cardiac hemodynamics.

Quantitative assessment of renal structural and functional changes in chronic kidney disease using multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (2019)
Journal Article
Buchanan, C. E., Mahmoud, H., Cox, E. F., McCulloch, T., Prestwich, B. L., Taal, M. W., …Francis, S. T. (2020). Quantitative assessment of renal structural and functional changes in chronic kidney disease using multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 35(6), 955-964. https://doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfz129

BACKGROUND: Multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides the potential for a more comprehensive non-invasive assessment of organ structure and function than individual MRI measures, but has not previously been comprehensively evaluated... Read More about Quantitative assessment of renal structural and functional changes in chronic kidney disease using multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging.

MRI assessment of altered dynamic changes in liver haemodynamics following a meal challenge in compensated cirrhosis (2018)
Journal Article
Cox, E. F., Palaniyappan, N., Aithal, G. P., Guha, I. N., & Francis, S. T. (2018). MRI assessment of altered dynamic changes in liver haemodynamics following a meal challenge in compensated cirrhosis. European Radiology Experimental, 2, Article 26. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41747-018-0056-3

Background: To use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to dynamically assess postprandial changes in hepatic and collateral blood flow, liver perfusion and oxygenation in healthy participants and patients with liver disease with compensated cirrhosis (C... Read More about MRI assessment of altered dynamic changes in liver haemodynamics following a meal challenge in compensated cirrhosis.

Using MRI to study the alterations in liver blood flow, perfusion and oxygenation in response to physiological stress challenges: meal, hyperoxia and hypercapnia (2018)
Journal Article
Cox, E. F., Palaniyappan, N., Aithal, G. P., Guha, I. N., & Francis, S. T. (in press). Using MRI to study the alterations in liver blood flow, perfusion and oxygenation in response to physiological stress challenges: meal, hyperoxia and hypercapnia. Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging,

Background: Non-invasive assessment of dynamic changes in liver blood flow, perfusion and oxygenation using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may allow detection of subtle haemodynamic alterations in cirrhosis. Purpose: To assess the feasibility of... Read More about Using MRI to study the alterations in liver blood flow, perfusion and oxygenation in response to physiological stress challenges: meal, hyperoxia and hypercapnia.

Evaluation of 2D Imaging Schemes for Pulsed Arterial Spin Labeling of the Human Kidney Cortex (2018)
Journal Article
Buchanan, C. E., Cox, E. F., & Francis, S. T. (2018). Evaluation of 2D Imaging Schemes for Pulsed Arterial Spin Labeling of the Human Kidney Cortex. Diagnostics, 8(3), Article 43. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics8030043

Purpose A number of imaging readout schemes have been proposed for renal arterial spin labelling (ASL) to quantify kidney cortex perfusion, including gradient echo based methods of balanced fast field echo (bFFE) and gradient-echo echo-planar imagi... Read More about Evaluation of 2D Imaging Schemes for Pulsed Arterial Spin Labeling of the Human Kidney Cortex.

Multi-organ assessment of compensated cirrhosis patients using quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (2018)
Journal Article
Bradley, C. R., Cox, E. F., Scott, R. A., James, M. W., Kaye, P., Aithal, G. P., …Guha, I. N. (2018). Multi-organ assessment of compensated cirrhosis patients using quantitative magnetic resonance imaging. Journal of Hepatology, 69(5), 1015-1024. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2018.05.037

© 2018 European Association for the Study of the Liver Background & Aims: Advancing liver disease results in deleterious changes in a number of critical organs. The ability to measure structure, blood flow and tissue perfusion within multiple organs... Read More about Multi-organ assessment of compensated cirrhosis patients using quantitative magnetic resonance imaging.

Multiparametric renal magnetic resonance imaging: validation, interventions, and alterations in chronic kidney disease (2017)
Journal Article
Cox, E. F., Buchanan, C. E., Bradley, C. R., Prestwich, B., Mahmoud, H., Taal, M., …Francis, S. T. (2017). Multiparametric renal magnetic resonance imaging: validation, interventions, and alterations in chronic kidney disease. Frontiers in Physiology, 8, Article 696. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2017.00696

Background: This paper outlines a multiparametric renal MRI acquisition and analysis protocol to allow non-invasive assessment of hemodynamics (renal artery blood flow and perfusion), oxygenation (BOLD T2*), and microstructure (diffusion, T1 mapping)... Read More about Multiparametric renal magnetic resonance imaging: validation, interventions, and alterations in chronic kidney disease.

Endotoxemia in peritoneal dialysis patients: a pilot study to examine the role of intestinal perfusion and congestion (2017)
Journal Article
Grant, C., Harrison, L., Hoad, C., Marciani, L., Cox, E., Buchanan, C., …McIntyre, C. (2017). Endotoxemia in peritoneal dialysis patients: a pilot study to examine the role of intestinal perfusion and congestion. Peritoneal Dialysis International, 37(1), 111-115. https://doi.org/10.3747/pdi.2016.00079

Endotoxemia is common in advanced chronic kidney disease and is particularly severe in those receiving dialysis. In hemodialysis patients, translocation from the bowel occurs as a consequence of recurrent circulatory stress leading to a reduction in... Read More about Endotoxemia in peritoneal dialysis patients: a pilot study to examine the role of intestinal perfusion and congestion.

Distinct abnormalities of small bowel and regional colonic volumes in subtypes of irritable bowel syndrome revealed by MRI (2016)
Journal Article
Lam, C., Chaddock, G., Marciani, L., Costigan, C., Cox, E., Hoad, C., …Spiller, R. C. (in press). Distinct abnormalities of small bowel and regional colonic volumes in subtypes of irritable bowel syndrome revealed by MRI. American Journal of Gastroenterology, https://doi.org/10.1038/ajg.2016.538

OBJECTIVES: Non-invasive biomarkers which identify different mechanisms of disease in subgroups of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) could be valuable. Our aim was to seek useful magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameters that could distinguish each IB... Read More about Distinct abnormalities of small bowel and regional colonic volumes in subtypes of irritable bowel syndrome revealed by MRI.

Intradialytic Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Assess Cardiovascular Responses in a Short-Term Trial of Hemodiafiltration and Hemodialysis (2016)
Journal Article
Buchanan, C., Mohammed, A., Cox, E., Köhler, K., Canaud, B., Taal, M. W., …McIntyre, C. W. (2017). Intradialytic Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Assess Cardiovascular Responses in a Short-Term Trial of Hemodiafiltration and Hemodialysis. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 28(4), 1269-1277. https://doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2016060686

Hemodynamic stress during hemodialysis (HD) results in recurrent segmental ischemic injury (myocardial stunning) that drives cumulative cardiac damage. We performed a fully comprehensive study of the cardiovascular effect of dialysis sessions using i... Read More about Intradialytic Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Assess Cardiovascular Responses in a Short-Term Trial of Hemodiafiltration and Hemodialysis.

Non-invasive assessment of portal hypertension using quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (2016)
Journal Article
Palaniyappan, N., Cox, E., Bradley, C., Scott, R., Austin, A., O’Neill, R., …Aithal, G. P. (2016). Non-invasive assessment of portal hypertension using quantitative magnetic resonance imaging. Journal of Hepatology, 65(6), 1131-1139. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2016.07.021

Background & Aims Hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) measurement is currently the only validated technique to accurately evaluate changes in portal pressure. In this study, we evaluate the use of non-contrast quantitative magnetic resonance i... Read More about Non-invasive assessment of portal hypertension using quantitative magnetic resonance imaging.

Fat emulsion intragastric stability and droplet size modulate gastrointestinal responses and subsequent food intake in young adults (2015)
Journal Article

Background: Intragastric creaming and droplet size of fat emulsions may affect intragastric behavior and gastrointestinal and satiety responses. Objectives: We tested the hypotheses that gastrointestinal physiologic responses and satiety will be i... Read More about Fat emulsion intragastric stability and droplet size modulate gastrointestinal responses and subsequent food intake in young adults.

Measurement of gastric meal and secretion volumes using magnetic resonance imaging (2015)
Journal Article
Hoad, C., Parker, H., Hudders, N., Costigan, C., Cox, E., Perkins, A., …Gowland, P. (2015). Measurement of gastric meal and secretion volumes using magnetic resonance imaging. Physics in Medicine and Biology, 60(3), 1367-1383. https://doi.org/10.1088/0031-9155/60/3/1367

MRI can assess multiple gastric functions without ionizing radiation. However, time consuming image acquisition and analysis of gastric volume data, plus confounding of gastric emptying measurements by gastric secretions mixed with the test meal have... Read More about Measurement of gastric meal and secretion volumes using magnetic resonance imaging.

Additive effects of gastric volumes and macronutrient composition on the sensation of postprandial fullness in humans (2014)
Journal Article

Background/Objectives: Intake of food or fluid distends the stomach and triggers mechanoreceptors and vagal afferents. Wall stretch and tension produces a feeling of fullness. Duodenal infusion studies assessing gastric sensitivity by barostat have s... Read More about Additive effects of gastric volumes and macronutrient composition on the sensation of postprandial fullness in humans.

Effects of various food ingredients on gall bladder emptying (2013)
Journal Article
Marciani, L., Cox, E., Hoad, C., Totman, J. J., Costigan, C., Singh, G., …Spiller, R. C. (2013). Effects of various food ingredients on gall bladder emptying. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 67(11), https://doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2013.168

Background/objectives: The emptying of the gall bladder in response to feeding is pivotal for the digestion of fat, but the role of various food ingredients in contracting the gall bladder postprandially is not well understood. We hypothesized that d... Read More about Effects of various food ingredients on gall bladder emptying.