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A Review of Carbon Emissions from Electrical Machine Materials (2024)
Journal Article
Zhang, X., Gerada, D., Xu, Z., Zhang, F., & Gerada, C. (2024). A Review of Carbon Emissions from Electrical Machine Materials. Electronics, 13(9), Article 1714. https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics13091714

As the world embarks on a global mission to tackle climate change, reducing carbon represents a key challenge given the escalating global warming. The U.K. is among many other nations that are determined to decarbonise all sectors and strive to achie... Read More about A Review of Carbon Emissions from Electrical Machine Materials.

Fillet Radius Impact of Rectangular Insulated Wires on PDIV for Turn-to-Turn Insulation of Inverter-Fed Motors (2024)
Journal Article
Naderiallaf, H., Degano, M., Gerada, C., & Gerada, D. (2024). Fillet Radius Impact of Rectangular Insulated Wires on PDIV for Turn-to-Turn Insulation of Inverter-Fed Motors. IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, 1-1. https://doi.org/10.1109/tdei.2024.3355032

This contribution elucidates the impact of the fillet radius, a geometric feature of rectangular insulated wires not commonly considered, on the partial discharge inception voltage (PDIV) in low-voltage machine turn-to-turn winding insulation. Initia... Read More about Fillet Radius Impact of Rectangular Insulated Wires on PDIV for Turn-to-Turn Insulation of Inverter-Fed Motors.

Comparative Study on Stranded and Hairpin Windings for 350kW EV Traction Motor (2023)
Presentation / Conference Contribution
Jiang, J., Zou, T., Rocca, S. L., Gerada, D., & Gerada, C. (2023). Comparative Study on Stranded and Hairpin Windings for 350kW EV Traction Motor. In 2023 26th International Conference on Electrical Machines and Systems (ICEMS). https://doi.org/10.1109/icems59686.2023.10345248

Hairpin winding is a key technology for traction motors to meet the step-change requirements on power density and efficiency in electrical vehicle (EV) industry. This winding solution features inherently high slot fill factor and improved heat dissip... Read More about Comparative Study on Stranded and Hairpin Windings for 350kW EV Traction Motor.

A Taguchi-LHS-RSM Double-Staged Approach for Design Optimization of Self-Ventilated Cooling Systems Utilized in PMSMs (2023)
Presentation / Conference Contribution
Zhu, G., Xu, Z., Zhang, F., Gerada, C., & Gerada, D. (2023). A Taguchi-LHS-RSM Double-Staged Approach for Design Optimization of Self-Ventilated Cooling Systems Utilized in PMSMs. In 26th International Conference on Electrical Machines and Systems (ICEMS). https://doi.org/10.1109/icems59686.2023.10344616

Thermal management is critical for high-power-density permanent magnet synchronous machines (PMSMs). To realize the efficient and effective design optimization of self-ventilated air cooling systems for PMSMs, in this paper, a Taguchi-preconditioned... Read More about A Taguchi-LHS-RSM Double-Staged Approach for Design Optimization of Self-Ventilated Cooling Systems Utilized in PMSMs.

Design of Hairpin Winding and Random Winding Stators for High Speed Heavy-Duty Traction Motor (2023)
Presentation / Conference Contribution
Jiang, J., Zou, T., La Rocca, A., La Rocca, S., Liu, C., Xu, Z., …Gerada, D. (2023). Design of Hairpin Winding and Random Winding Stators for High Speed Heavy-Duty Traction Motor. In 2023 IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (VPPC). https://doi.org/10.1109/VPPC60535.2023.10403273

Hairpin winding with rectangularly shaped conductors are gradually replacing random winding wound with stranded wires in electric vehicle (EV) industry. As the newgeneration winding technology, hairpin winding features high electromagnetic and therma... Read More about Design of Hairpin Winding and Random Winding Stators for High Speed Heavy-Duty Traction Motor.

Research on the Effect of Heat Pipe Inclination Angle on Temperature Distribution in Electrical Machines (2023)
Journal Article
Zhao, H., Zhang, X., Li, J., Zhang, F., Zhang, Y., Yan, H., …Gerada, D. (2023). Research on the Effect of Heat Pipe Inclination Angle on Temperature Distribution in Electrical Machines. IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, 59(6), 6745-6755. https://doi.org/10.1109/tia.2023.3310977

Due to high equivalent thermal conductivity with lightweight and small size, heat pipes (HPs) are being extensively applied in the motor cooling system to improve its thermal performance. However, when practically installed in electrical machines, th... Read More about Research on the Effect of Heat Pipe Inclination Angle on Temperature Distribution in Electrical Machines.

Analytical Calculation and Experimental Validation of Litz Wires Axial Thermal Conductivity (2023)
Journal Article
Li, Z., Xu, Z., Zhang, F., Gerada, D., Guo, R., Zhang, H., …Zhang, C. (2024). Analytical Calculation and Experimental Validation of Litz Wires Axial Thermal Conductivity. IEEE Transactions on Transportation Electrification, 10(1), 1167-1179. https://doi.org/10.1109/TTE.2023.3262766

Litz wires are widely used in electrical machines with reduced AC losses, compared to traditional random winding. The reduced AC losses can improve both electrical machines electromagnetic performance, such as efficiency and thermal performance. Ther... Read More about Analytical Calculation and Experimental Validation of Litz Wires Axial Thermal Conductivity.

Heat Pipe Bending Effect on Cooling Effectiveness in Electrical Machines (2023)
Journal Article
Zhao, H., Zhang, X., Li, J., Wang, H., Zhang, F., Zhang, H., …Gerada, D. (2023). Heat Pipe Bending Effect on Cooling Effectiveness in Electrical Machines. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, 38(3), 2011-2021. https://doi.org/10.1109/tec.2023.3249971

Heat pipes(HPs) are being extensively explored in motor cooling scenarios for enhanced cooling capacity. HPs are commonly bent to adapt to the compact structure of electrical machines, whereas the bending effect on motor cooling effectiveness still r... Read More about Heat Pipe Bending Effect on Cooling Effectiveness in Electrical Machines.

Impact of stator interturn short circuit fault on shaft voltage in a synchronous generator (2022)
Journal Article
He, Y., Yang, P., Sun, K., Xu, Z., Wang, H., He, X., & Gerada, D. (2023). Impact of stator interturn short circuit fault on shaft voltage in a synchronous generator. IET Electric Power Applications, 17(3), 381-391. https://doi.org/10.1049/elp2.12271

Shaft voltage often exists in synchronous generators due to the assembly error or various faults after the long‐term performance. The article investigates the shaft voltage characteristic under the stator interturn short circuit (SISC) condition. Dif... Read More about Impact of stator interturn short circuit fault on shaft voltage in a synchronous generator.

Airgap Length Analysis of a 350kW PM-Assisted Syn-Rel Machine for Heavy Duty EV Traction (2022)
Journal Article
Zou, T., Gerada, D., La Rocca, S., La Rocca, A., Walker, A., Vakil, G., …Gerada, C. (2023). Airgap Length Analysis of a 350kW PM-Assisted Syn-Rel Machine for Heavy Duty EV Traction. IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, 59(2), 1557-1570. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIA.2022.3225255

Synchronous reluctance (Syn-Rel) machines with embedded permanent magnets (PMs) are research hotspots in variable speed motor drives due to their robust rotor structure and wide constant power speed range (CPSR). In this paper, the potential of PM-as... Read More about Airgap Length Analysis of a 350kW PM-Assisted Syn-Rel Machine for Heavy Duty EV Traction.

Stator current identification in generator among single and composite faults composed by static air‐gap eccentricity and rotor inter‐turn short circuit (2022)
Journal Article
He, Y., Qiu, M., Jiang, M., Zhou, F., Gerada, D., Zhang, X., & Du, X. (2023). Stator current identification in generator among single and composite faults composed by static air‐gap eccentricity and rotor inter‐turn short circuit. IET Electric Power Applications, 17(2), 268-278. https://doi.org/10.1049/elp2.12260

In this study, a fault diagnosis model based on magnetic density is proposed to analyse the current characteristics of synchronous generator rotor inter‐turn short circuit and air gap eccentric single fault and composite fault. The model considers th... Read More about Stator current identification in generator among single and composite faults composed by static air‐gap eccentricity and rotor inter‐turn short circuit.

A Novel Airgap Permeance Modeling Approach for Magnetic Field Analysis of Electrical Machines Based on Electrostatic FEA (2022)
Presentation / Conference Contribution
Cui, M., Zou, T., Li, D., Gerada, D., Qu, R., & Gerada, C. (2022). A Novel Airgap Permeance Modeling Approach for Magnetic Field Analysis of Electrical Machines Based on Electrostatic FEA. In 2022 IEEE Transportation Electrification Conference and Expo, Asia-Pacific (ITEC Asia-Pacific). https://doi.org/10.1109/itecasia-pacific56316.2022.9941839

Detailed airgap permeance information is of great importance for analyzing the operation principle and optimizing the electromagnetic field distribution of an electric machine with unconventional topology. So far, analytical approaches upon calculati... Read More about A Novel Airgap Permeance Modeling Approach for Magnetic Field Analysis of Electrical Machines Based on Electrostatic FEA.

Radial Force Analysis and Optimization of Interior Permanent Magnet Traction Motor for Reduction of Electromagnetic Vibration (2022)
Presentation / Conference Contribution
Li, H., Cui, M., Zou, T., Zhang, X., Zhang, H., Xu, Z., …Gerada, C. (2022). Radial Force Analysis and Optimization of Interior Permanent Magnet Traction Motor for Reduction of Electromagnetic Vibration. In 2022 International Conference on Electrical Machines (ICEM) (1906-1912). https://doi.org/10.1109/ICEM51905.2022.9910879

Interior permanent magnet (IPM) machines are subject to rich harmonics of air-gap magnetic field, which correspond to electromagnetic forces and resulting noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH) issues. In this paper, the NVH issue is evaluated based o... Read More about Radial Force Analysis and Optimization of Interior Permanent Magnet Traction Motor for Reduction of Electromagnetic Vibration.

Comparison of Aluminium and Copper Conductors in Hairpin Winding Design for High Power Density Traction Motors (2022)
Presentation / Conference Contribution
Petrelli, G., Cui, M., Zou, T., Sala, G., La Rocca, A., Barater, D., …Gerada, C. (2022). Comparison of Aluminium and Copper Conductors in Hairpin Winding Design for High Power Density Traction Motors. In 2022 International Conference on Electrical Machines (ICEM) (1635-1641). https://doi.org/10.1109/icem51905.2022.9910796

Hairpin windings are becoming current/next generation solutions for traction motors of electric vehicles due to inherently reduced DC power losses and improved heat dissipation capability compared with random windings. Copper-based conductor has been... Read More about Comparison of Aluminium and Copper Conductors in Hairpin Winding Design for High Power Density Traction Motors.

Impact of Radial Air-Gap Eccentricity on Stator End Winding Vibration Characteristics in DFIG (2022)
Journal Article
Xu, M., He, Y., Zhang, W., Dai, D., Liu, X., Zheng, W., …Shi, S. (2022). Impact of Radial Air-Gap Eccentricity on Stator End Winding Vibration Characteristics in DFIG. Energies, 15(17), Article 6426. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15176426

In this paper, qualitative theoretical derivations, finite element analysis (FEA) and experiments are used to investigate the electromagnetic force (EF) and vibration characteristics of end windings. In contrast to previous studies, this study focuse... Read More about Impact of Radial Air-Gap Eccentricity on Stator End Winding Vibration Characteristics in DFIG.

Decoupled Discrete Current Control for AC Drives at Low Sampling-to-Fundamental Frequency Ratios (2022)
Journal Article
Wang, M., Buticchi, G., Li, J., Gu, C., Gerada, D., Degano, M., …Geradab, C. (2022). Decoupled Discrete Current Control for AC Drives at Low Sampling-to-Fundamental Frequency Ratios. IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics, 11(2), https://doi.org/10.1109/jestpe.2022.3179184

Implementation of proportional-integral (PI) controllers in synchronous reference frame (SRF) is a well-established current control solution for electric drives. It is a general and effective method in digital control as long as the ratio of Sampling... Read More about Decoupled Discrete Current Control for AC Drives at Low Sampling-to-Fundamental Frequency Ratios.

Impact of Stator Segmentation on the Performance of Aerospace Propulsion Machines (2022)
Presentation / Conference Contribution
Ramanathan Mathavan Jeyabalan, R. K., Vakil, G., Gerada, D., Gerada, C., & Minshull, J. (2022). Impact of Stator Segmentation on the Performance of Aerospace Propulsion Machines. SAE Technical Papers, 4(4), 1048-1056. https://doi.org/10.4271/2022-01-0039

Electric machines offering a high power density are required for aerospace applications. Soft magnetic material with a high saturation flux density is one of the key component which is required to realize these power density targets. The need for a h... Read More about Impact of Stator Segmentation on the Performance of Aerospace Propulsion Machines.

A Comprehensive Design Guideline of Hairpin Windings for High Power Density Electric Vehicle Traction Motors (2022)
Journal Article
Zou, T., Gerada, D., La Rocca, A., Moslemin, M., Cairns, A., Cui, M., …Gerada, C. (2022). A Comprehensive Design Guideline of Hairpin Windings for High Power Density Electric Vehicle Traction Motors. IEEE Transactions on Transportation Electrification, 8(3), 3578-3593. https://doi.org/10.1109/TTE.2022.3149786

The rapidly increasing demand on power density levels of electric vehicle (EV) drive systems is pushing the boundaries of traction motor performance. Hairpin windings are becoming a popular option for EV motors due to their reduced DC losses and impr... Read More about A Comprehensive Design Guideline of Hairpin Windings for High Power Density Electric Vehicle Traction Motors.

Performance Entitlement by Using Novel High Strength Electrical Steels and Copper Alloys for High-Speed Laminated Rotor Induction Machines (2022)
Journal Article
Zhang, F., Gerada, D., Xu, Z., He, Y., Zhang, H., Hua, W., & Gerada, C. (2022). Performance Entitlement by Using Novel High Strength Electrical Steels and Copper Alloys for High-Speed Laminated Rotor Induction Machines. Electronics, 11(2), 210. https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11020210

The laminated rotor Induction Machine (IM), with its simple construction and manufacturing, robustness, ease of control and comparatively lower cost remains by far the most utilized electromechanical energy converter. At very high speeds, traditional... Read More about Performance Entitlement by Using Novel High Strength Electrical Steels and Copper Alloys for High-Speed Laminated Rotor Induction Machines.

Carbon Emission Analysis of Electrical Machines (2021)
Presentation / Conference Contribution
Zhang, X., Xu, Z., Gerada, C., & Gerada, D. (2021). Carbon Emission Analysis of Electrical Machines. In 2021 24th International Conference on Electrical Machines and Systems (ICEMS) (1678-1683). https://doi.org/10.23919/ICEMS52562.2021.9634279

The industry places increased importance on carbon reduction. Many are focused on lowering the fuel consumption of electrical machines, however, carbon emissions from the acquisition of raw materials and the energy consumption of manufacturing proces... Read More about Carbon Emission Analysis of Electrical Machines.

A critical review on thermal management technologies for motors in electric cars (2021)
Journal Article
Wang, X., Li, B., Gerada, D., Huang, K., Stone, I., Worrall, S., & Yan, Y. (2022). A critical review on thermal management technologies for motors in electric cars. Applied Thermal Engineering, 201(Part A), Article 117758. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2021.117758

The development of electric cars has well been regarded as a major solution for tackling the challenges of carbon-neutrality faced by the modern communities. Electric motor is certainly the core and most important components of an electric car, and t... Read More about A critical review on thermal management technologies for motors in electric cars.

Improved Thermal Modeling and Experimental Validation of Oil-Flooded High-Performance Machines with Slot-Channel Cooling (2021)
Journal Article
Zhang, F., Gerada, D., Xu, Z., Zhang, X., Zhang, H., Gerada, C., …Degano, M. (2022). Improved Thermal Modeling and Experimental Validation of Oil-Flooded High-Performance Machines with Slot-Channel Cooling. IEEE Transactions on Transportation Electrification, 8(1), 312-324. https://doi.org/10.1109/TTE.2021.3106819

Thermal management is often considered a bottleneck in the pursuit of the next-generation electrical machines for electrified transportation with a step change in power density. Slot-channel cooling is considered to be an effective cooling technique,... Read More about Improved Thermal Modeling and Experimental Validation of Oil-Flooded High-Performance Machines with Slot-Channel Cooling.

Electrical Machine Slot Thermal Condition Effects on Back Iron Extension Thermal Benefits (2021)
Journal Article
Zhang, F., Gerada, D., Xu, Z., Tighe, C., Zhang, H., Yan, L., & Gerada, C. (2021). Electrical Machine Slot Thermal Condition Effects on Back Iron Extension Thermal Benefits. IEEE Transactions on Transportation Electrification, 7(4), 2927-2938. https://doi.org/10.1109/tte.2021.3085822

The slot thermal condition is critical for thermal management of high-performance electrical machines, due to the high heat losses and poor heat transfer ability within the slot. With a part of the back iron projected radially downward into the slot,... Read More about Electrical Machine Slot Thermal Condition Effects on Back Iron Extension Thermal Benefits.

Thermal Management of Electrified Propulsion System for Low-Carbon Vehicles (2020)
Journal Article
Li, B., Kuo, H., Wang, X., Chen, Y., Wang, Y., Gerada, D., …Yan, Y. (2020). Thermal Management of Electrified Propulsion System for Low-Carbon Vehicles. Automotive Innovation, 3(4), 299-316. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42154-020-00124-y

An overview of current thermal challenges in transport electrification is introduced in order to underpin the research developments and trends of recent thermal management techniques. Currently, explorations of intelligent thermal management and cont... Read More about Thermal Management of Electrified Propulsion System for Low-Carbon Vehicles.

Influence of Rotor Design on Electromagnetic Performance in Interior Permanent Magnet Machines (2020)
Presentation / Conference Contribution
Transi, T., Murataliyev, M., Degano, M., Preci, E., Gerada, D., & Gerada, C. (2020). Influence of Rotor Design on Electromagnetic Performance in Interior Permanent Magnet Machines. . https://doi.org/10.1109/iecon43393.2020.9255237

Nowadays, Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines (IPMSM) are widely adopted in various sectors such as automotive, railway or public transportation (e- buses, trams, etc.). Among the benefits that these machines present, they offer a number o... Read More about Influence of Rotor Design on Electromagnetic Performance in Interior Permanent Magnet Machines.

Influence of Airgap Length on Performance of High Power PM-Assisted Syn-Rel Machines (2020)
Presentation / Conference Contribution
Zou, T., Gerada, D., Walker, A., Vakil, G., La Rocca, S., La Rocca, A., …Gerada, C. (2020). Influence of Airgap Length on Performance of High Power PM-Assisted Syn-Rel Machines. In 2020 IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE) (1357-1363). https://doi.org/10.1109/ecce44975.2020.9235712

In recent years, synchronous reluctance (Syn-Rel) machines are research hotspots in variable speed motor drives due to their robust rotor structure and wide constant power speed range (CPSR). More practically, when kVA limitation is considered, embed... Read More about Influence of Airgap Length on Performance of High Power PM-Assisted Syn-Rel Machines.

SISO Control Strategy of Resonant Dual Active Bridge with a Tuned CLC Network (2020)
Presentation / Conference Contribution
Wang, M., Yang, B., Xu, L., Li, J., Gerada, D., Gu, C., …Li, Y. (2020). SISO Control Strategy of Resonant Dual Active Bridge with a Tuned CLC Network. In 2020 22nd European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications (EPE'20 ECCE Europe). https://doi.org/10.23919/epe20ecceeurope43536.2020.9215606

This paper proposed a linear state-space model for a resonant dual active bridge with a tuned capacitor-inductor-capacitor network which is applied to an energy storage system. The proposed model is used for predicting the behavior of the proposed sy... Read More about SISO Control Strategy of Resonant Dual Active Bridge with a Tuned CLC Network.

Improved V‐shaped interior permanent magnet rotor topology with inward‐extended bridges for reduced torque ripple (2020)
Journal Article
Gao, P., Sun, X., Gerada, D., Gerada, C., & Wang, X. (2020). Improved V‐shaped interior permanent magnet rotor topology with inward‐extended bridges for reduced torque ripple. IET Electric Power Applications, 14(12), 2404-2411. https://doi.org/10.1049/iet-epa.2019.0850

Interior permanent magnet synchronous machines (IPMSMs) with V-shaped permanent magnet (PM) rotors are widely used as traction motors in electric vehicles because of their high torque density and high efficiency. However, the V-shape IPMSMs have the... Read More about Improved V‐shaped interior permanent magnet rotor topology with inward‐extended bridges for reduced torque ripple.

An Analytical Approach for the Design of Innovative Hairpin Winding Layouts (2020)
Presentation / Conference Contribution
Arzillo, A., Nuzzo, S., Braglia, P., Franceschini, G., Barater, D., Gerada, D., & Gerada, C. (2020). An Analytical Approach for the Design of Innovative Hairpin Winding Layouts. . https://doi.org/10.1109/icem49940.2020.9270927

This work deals with an analytical approach aimed at accurately predicting Joule losses in innovative hairpin winding layouts. While hairpin windings are seeing an everincreasing use in automotive and aerospace applications due to their inherently hi... Read More about An Analytical Approach for the Design of Innovative Hairpin Winding Layouts.

Challenges and Future opportunities of Hairpin Technologies (2020)
Presentation / Conference Contribution
Arzillo, A., Braglia, P., Nuzzo, S., Barater, D., Franceschini, G., Gerada, D., & Gerada, C. (2020). Challenges and Future opportunities of Hairpin Technologies. . https://doi.org/10.1109/ISIE45063.2020.9152417

Hairpin windings are seeing an ever-increasing application and development in electrical machines designed for high power and torque densities. In fact, due to their inherently high fill factor, they are very attractive in applications, such as trans... Read More about Challenges and Future opportunities of Hairpin Technologies.

A Hybrid Computational Tool to Analyze the Performance of Electric Machines with Reduced Content of Permanent Magnet (2020)
Presentation / Conference Contribution
Ram Kumar, R. M., Khowja, M. R., Vakil, G., Gerada, D., Gerada, C., Paciura, K., & Fernandes, B. G. (2020). A Hybrid Computational Tool to Analyze the Performance of Electric Machines with Reduced Content of Permanent Magnet. In 2020 IEEE Transportation Electrification Conference & Expo (ITEC) (340-345). https://doi.org/10.1109/itec48692.2020.9161631

Electric vehicles (EVs) are equipped with interior permanent magnet (IPM) or permanent magnet assisted synchronous reluctance (PM-SynRel) machines because of their superior performance in field weakening region. The effect of saturation is more prono... Read More about A Hybrid Computational Tool to Analyze the Performance of Electric Machines with Reduced Content of Permanent Magnet.

Analytical Model of Modular Spoke-Type Permanent Magnet Machines for In-Wheel Traction Applications (2020)
Journal Article
Zhang, H., Hua, W., Gerada, D., Xu, Z., & Gerada, C. (2020). Analytical Model of Modular Spoke-Type Permanent Magnet Machines for In-Wheel Traction Applications. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, 35(3), 1289-1300. https://doi.org/10.1109/tec.2020.2979886

This paper proposes an analytical model of modular spoke-type permanent magnet (MSTPM) machines based on air-gap field modulation (AFM) theory. Firstly, a fundamental AFM model of open-circuit MSTPM machines is introduced. The open-circuit air-gap fi... Read More about Analytical Model of Modular Spoke-Type Permanent Magnet Machines for In-Wheel Traction Applications.

Sensitivity Analysis of Machine Components Thermal Properties Effects on Winding Temperature (2019)
Presentation / Conference Contribution
Zhang, F., Gerada, D., Xu, Z., Zhang, H., & Gerada, C. (2019). Sensitivity Analysis of Machine Components Thermal Properties Effects on Winding Temperature. In 2019 22nd International Conference on Electrical Machines and Systems (ICEMS). https://doi.org/10.1109/ICEMS.2019.8922095

This paper investigates the sensitivity analysis of winding temperature to key parameters in electrical machine thermal design. With a validated 3D thermal model based on an existing 75kW traction machine for an electric vehicle, the methodology of t... Read More about Sensitivity Analysis of Machine Components Thermal Properties Effects on Winding Temperature.

Enhancing the Torque Density of Conventional PM-SynRel Machine with Hybrid Flux Barrier (2019)
Presentation / Conference Contribution
Kumar, R. M. R., Vakil, G., Gerada, D., Walker, A., La Rocca, S., Al-Ani, M., …Fernandes, B. G. (2019). Enhancing the Torque Density of Conventional PM-SynRel Machine with Hybrid Flux Barrier. In IECON 2019 Proceedings - 45th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (4347-4352). https://doi.org/10.1109/IECON.2019.8926624

Electrical machines with high torque density are required for traction application. Availability of bonded magnets with complex shapes and magnetization pattern can significantly extend the design space of electrical machines. This paper introduces a... Read More about Enhancing the Torque Density of Conventional PM-SynRel Machine with Hybrid Flux Barrier.

Rotor UMP & Mechanical Response in HSPMSM in Typical Running Conditions (2019)
Presentation / Conference Contribution
He, Y.-L., Vakil, G., Zhang, X.-C., Gao, P., Gerada, D., & Gerada, C. (2019). Rotor UMP & Mechanical Response in HSPMSM in Typical Running Conditions. In Proceedings: 2019 IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE) (3878-3883). https://doi.org/10.1109/ECCE.2019.8913180

This paper presents a comprehensive analysis on the rotor unbalanced magnetic pull (UMP) and the consequent mechanical response in 6 typical running conditions in a 20000 rpm high speed permanent magnet synchronous motor (HSPMSM) through finite eleme... Read More about Rotor UMP & Mechanical Response in HSPMSM in Typical Running Conditions.

Equivalent Slot Thermal Conductivity and Back-iron Extension Effects on Machine Cooling (2019)
Presentation / Conference Contribution
Zhang, F., Gerada, D., Xu, Z., Zhang, H., & Gerada, C. (2019). Equivalent Slot Thermal Conductivity and Back-iron Extension Effects on Machine Cooling. In Proceedings of 2019 22nd International Conference on Electrical Machines and Systems (ICEMS). https://doi.org/10.1109/ICEMS.2019.8921725

Back-iron Extension (BIE) is an effective thermal management technique which reduces the winding temperatures by projecting part of the back iron into the center of slot, thereby shortening the heat transfer path between the coil and back iron. Based... Read More about Equivalent Slot Thermal Conductivity and Back-iron Extension Effects on Machine Cooling.

Dual-Pulse Mode Control of a High-Speed Doubly Salient Electromagnetic Machine for Loss Reduction and Speed Range Extension (2019)
Journal Article
Yu, L., Zhang, Z., Bian, Z., Gerada, D., & Gerada, C. (2019). Dual-Pulse Mode Control of a High-Speed Doubly Salient Electromagnetic Machine for Loss Reduction and Speed Range Extension. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 67(6), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1109/tie.2019.2931253

In this paper, a dual-pulse mode control of a high-speed doubly salient electromagnetic machine (DSEM) for efficiency improvement over a wide speed range is investigated and implemented. The dual-pulse mode control method and operation principle are... Read More about Dual-Pulse Mode Control of a High-Speed Doubly Salient Electromagnetic Machine for Loss Reduction and Speed Range Extension.

Effect of 3D Unidirectional and Hybrid SAGE on Electromagnetic Torque Fluctuation Characteristics in Synchronous Generator (2019)
Journal Article
He, Y.-L., Xu, M.-X., Xiong, J., Sun, Y.-X., Wang, X.-L., Gerada, D., & Vakil, G. (2019). Effect of 3D Unidirectional and Hybrid SAGE on Electromagnetic Torque Fluctuation Characteristics in Synchronous Generator. IEEE Access, 7, 100813-100823. https://doi.org/10.1109/access.2019.2929868

This paper presents a comprehensive study on the variation laws of electromagnetic torque (EMT) under static air-gap eccentricity (SAGE) conditions in synchronous generators. Different from other studies, this paper focuses on not only the impact of... Read More about Effect of 3D Unidirectional and Hybrid SAGE on Electromagnetic Torque Fluctuation Characteristics in Synchronous Generator.

Comparative study on two modular spoke-type PM machines for in-wheel traction applications (2019)
Journal Article
Zhang, H., Hua, W., Gerada, D., Gerada, C., Li, Y., & Zhang, G. (2019). Comparative study on two modular spoke-type PM machines for in-wheel traction applications. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, 34(4), 2137-2147. https://doi.org/10.1109/tec.2019.2927872

This paper focuses on the comparative analysis of modular spoke-type permanent magnet machines with two magnetization modes, which are referred to as M-I and M-II types. The analytical models of the proposed machines are built based on the simple mag... Read More about Comparative study on two modular spoke-type PM machines for in-wheel traction applications.

Challenges of the optimization of a high-speed induction machine for naval applications (2019)
Journal Article
Buticchi, G., Gerada, D., Alberti, L., Galea, M., Wheeler, P., Bozhko, S., …Gerada, C. (2019). Challenges of the optimization of a high-speed induction machine for naval applications. Energies, 12(12), Article 2431. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12122431

In several industrial sectors, induction machines are being replaced with permanent magnet based alternatives, owing to the potential for higher power density and efficiency. However, high-speed applications feature a wide flux-weakening region, wher... Read More about Challenges of the optimization of a high-speed induction machine for naval applications.

Flux-Density Harmonics Analysis of Switched-Flux Permanent Magnet Machines (2019)
Journal Article
Zeng, Z., Shen, Y., Lu, Q., Gerada, D., Wu, B., Huang, X., & Gerada, C. (2019). Flux-Density Harmonics Analysis of Switched-Flux Permanent Magnet Machines. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 55(6), 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1109/tmag.2019.2908250

By developing a simple permeance-magnetomotive force (MMF) model of switched-flux permanent magnet (SFPM) machines, the air-gap flux density produced by both PMs and armature current can be derived, in which harmonics with the same order and rotation... Read More about Flux-Density Harmonics Analysis of Switched-Flux Permanent Magnet Machines.

Effective Thermal Conductivity Calculation and Measurement of Litz Wire based on the Porous Metal Materials Structure (2019)
Journal Article
Liu, X., Gerada, D., Xu, Z., Corfield, M., Gerada, C., & Yu, H. (2020). Effective Thermal Conductivity Calculation and Measurement of Litz Wire based on the Porous Metal Materials Structure. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 67(4), 2667-2677. https://doi.org/10.1109/tie.2019.2910031

Litz wires are employed in high-frequency electrical machines due to their advantages of reducing the ac losses, including minimizing the skin effect and the proximity effect. In order to improve the reliability of such machines, and enable accurate... Read More about Effective Thermal Conductivity Calculation and Measurement of Litz Wire based on the Porous Metal Materials Structure.

The Influence of Winding Location in Flux-Switching Permanent-Magnet Machines (2019)
Journal Article
Zhang, H., Hua, W., Hu, M., Gerada, D., & Gerada, C. (2019). The Influence of Winding Location in Flux-Switching Permanent-Magnet Machines. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 55(7), Article 8104205. https://doi.org/10.1109/tmag.2018.2886686

The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of winding location on back electromotive force (EMF) and armature inductance in flux-switching permanent-magnet (FSPM) machines. To obtain an analytical solution, a double-stator-pitch m... Read More about The Influence of Winding Location in Flux-Switching Permanent-Magnet Machines.

Performance Comparison of Doubly Salient Reluctance Generators for High-Voltage DC Power System of More Electric Aircraft (2018)
Presentation / Conference Contribution
Li, Y., Zhang, Z., Gerada, D., & Gerada, C. (2018). Performance Comparison of Doubly Salient Reluctance Generators for High-Voltage DC Power System of More Electric Aircraft. In 2018 IEEE International Conference on Electrical Systems for Aircraft, Railway, Ship Propulsion and Road Vehicles & International Transportation Electrification Conference (ESARS-ITEC) (1-6). https://doi.org/10.1109/ESARS-ITEC.2018.8607694

The generation performance of the switched reluctance machine (SRM)-based starter/generator (S/G) and the doubly salient electromagnetic machine (DSEM)-based S/G is analyzed and compared in this paper. The topologies, operation principles of the doub... Read More about Performance Comparison of Doubly Salient Reluctance Generators for High-Voltage DC Power System of More Electric Aircraft.

Holistic electrical machine optimization for system integration (2017)
Presentation / Conference Contribution
Gerada, D., Golovanov, D., Xu, Z., Papini, L., Degano, M., Zhang, H., & Gerada, C. (2017). Holistic electrical machine optimization for system integration. In 2017 IEEE 3rd International Future Energy Electronics Conference and ECCE Asia (IFEEC 2017 - ECCE Asia) (980-985). https://doi.org/10.1109/IFEEC.2017.7992174

The power density of electrical machines required for transport applications has become a critical aspect and target of optimization. This paper looks at the development aspects of a multi-domain tool to aid for system-level optimization of electrica... Read More about Holistic electrical machine optimization for system integration.

Design and implementation of a loss optimization control for electric vehicle in-wheel permanent-magnet synchronous motor direct drive system (2017)
Journal Article
Guo, Q., Zhang, C., Li, L., Gerada, D., Zhang, J., & Wang, M. (2017). Design and implementation of a loss optimization control for electric vehicle in-wheel permanent-magnet synchronous motor direct drive system. Applied Energy, 204, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.05.023

As a main driving force of electric vehicles (EVs), the losses of in-wheel permanent-magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) direct drive system can seriously affect the energy consumption of EVs. This paper proposes a loss optimization control strategy for... Read More about Design and implementation of a loss optimization control for electric vehicle in-wheel permanent-magnet synchronous motor direct drive system.

A topology selection consideration of electrical machines for traction applications: towards the FreedomCar 2020 targets (2015)
Presentation / Conference Contribution
Walker, A., Galea, M., Gerada, C., Mebarki, A., & Gerada, D. (2015). A topology selection consideration of electrical machines for traction applications: towards the FreedomCar 2020 targets. . https://doi.org/10.1109/EVER.2015.7112923

This paper details a qualitative comparison between different types of electrical machine for hybrid electric vehicle traction applications. Targets set by the US Department of Energy for the year 2020 are used as goals. Several types of machine for... Read More about A topology selection consideration of electrical machines for traction applications: towards the FreedomCar 2020 targets.

Design considerations for high performance traction machines: Aiming for the FreedomCar 2020 targets (2015)
Presentation / Conference Contribution
Walker, A., Galea, M., Gerada, C., Mebarki, A., & Gerada, D. (2015). Design considerations for high performance traction machines: Aiming for the FreedomCar 2020 targets. . https://doi.org/10.1109/ESARS.2015.7101451

This paper presents considerations for the design of high performance, interior permanent magnet machines for traction applications. These machines will be designed to reach the FreedomCar 2020 targets set by the US Department of Energy for the year... Read More about Design considerations for high performance traction machines: Aiming for the FreedomCar 2020 targets.

High-speed electrical machines: technologies, trends and developments (2013)
Journal Article
Gerada, D., Mebarki, A., Brown, N., Gerada, C., Cavagnino, A., & Boglietti, A. (2014). High-speed electrical machines: technologies, trends and developments. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 61(6), https://doi.org/10.1109/TIE.2013.2286777

This paper reviews the current technologies used in high speed electrical machines, through an extensive survey of different topologies developed and built in industry as well as in academia for several applications. Developments in materials and com... Read More about High-speed electrical machines: technologies, trends and developments.