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A comparison between London and Baghdad surface urban heat islands and possible engineering mitigation solutions

Ali, Jasim M.; Marsh, Stuart; Smith, Martin J.

Authors

Jasim M. Ali

STUART MARSH Stuart.Marsh@nottingham.ac.uk
Professor of Geospatial Engineering

Martin J. Smith



Abstract

This study adopts remote sensing techniques to compare the Surface urban Heat Island (SUHI) in Bagh-dad and London as they represent different climatic conditions, natural environments and levels of urbandevelopment. It tests the reported correlation of land surface temperature (LST) with land cover in theliterature under different conditions and, based on the findings, suggests engineering mitigation strate-gies for each city. The land surface was characterized using supervised classification and spectral indices,using the Landsat 8 optical bands (2–7), and the LST was retrieved from Landsat’s thermal band 10 afteremissivity calibration. Two Landsat 8 satellite images were used, acquired in July 2013 when maximumsurface temperature would be expected in both these capital cities. Image processing included radio-metric calibration and atmospheric correction and various land surface indices were then calculated.The independent validation of land cover types was performed using higher spatial resolution opticaldata, and LST patterns were validated using ASTER thermal images. Land cover types or indices and landsurface temperature display high correlations, with most having a positive relationship with LST, but veg-etation has a negative relationship. The hottest surface type also differs for the two cities. Consequently,covering the soil in Baghdad with new construction, for example, reduces the surface temperature andhence urban heat island effect, while the same action in London increases it. Thus, engineering solutionsto urban heat island issues need to take local factors into account

Citation

Ali, J. M., Marsh, S., & Smith, M. J. (2017). A comparison between London and Baghdad surface urban heat islands and possible engineering mitigation solutions. Sustainable Cities and Society, 29, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scs.2016.12.010

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Dec 16, 2016
Online Publication Date Dec 27, 2016
Publication Date Feb 1, 2017
Deposit Date Jan 4, 2017
Publicly Available Date Jan 4, 2017
Journal Sustainable Cities and Society
Print ISSN 2210-6707
Electronic ISSN 2210-6707
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Not Peer Reviewed
Volume 29
DOI https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scs.2016.12.010
Keywords urban remote sensing, spatial change, surface urban heat island, land cover, spectral indices, mitigation strategies
Public URL http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/id/eprint/39579
Publisher URL http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2210670716304656
Copyright Statement Copyright information regarding this work can be found at the following address: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0
Additional Information http://www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo/issn/2210-6707/

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Copyright Statement
Copyright information regarding this work can be found at the following address: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0





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