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Flexible and transparent films produced from cellulose nanowhisker reinforced agarose

Felfel, Reda M.; Hossain, Kazi M. Zakir; Kabir, Sumaya F.; Yee, Soon L.; Ahmed, Ifty; Grant, David M.


Reda M. Felfel

Kazi M. Zakir Hossain

Sumaya F. Kabir

Soon L. Yee

Professor of Materials Science


Transparent and flexible nanocomposite films with a range of Agarose to Cellulose Nano-Whisker (CNW) ratios were produced using never-dried CNWs. The incorporation of never-dried CNWs within Agarose played an important role in the surface roughness (Ra 7–15 nm) and light transparency of the films (from 84 to 90%). Surface induced crystallisation of Agarose by CNWs was also found with increasing percentage of crystallinity (up to 79%) for the nanocomposite films, where CNW acted as nucleating sites. The enhanced tensile strength (ca. 30% increase) and modulus (ca. 90% increase) properties of the nanocomposite films compared to the control Agarose film indicated the effectiveness of the nanowhiskers incorporation. The storage modulus of the nanocomposite films increased also to be tripled Agarose alone as the CNWs content reached 43%. The swelling kinetics of the nanocomposites revealed that addition of CNWs reduced the long-term swelling capacity and swelling rate of the nanocomposite.


Felfel, R. M., Hossain, K. M. Z., Kabir, S. F., Yee, S. L., Ahmed, I., & Grant, D. M. (2018). Flexible and transparent films produced from cellulose nanowhisker reinforced agarose. Carbohydrate Polymers, 194,

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Apr 1, 2018
Online Publication Date Apr 12, 2018
Publication Date Aug 15, 2018
Deposit Date Apr 16, 2018
Publicly Available Date Apr 13, 2019
Journal Carbohydrate Polymers
Print ISSN 0144-8617
Electronic ISSN 1879-1344
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 194
Keywords Cellulose nanowhiskers; Agarose; Transparency; Crystallinity; Tensile properties; Swelling kinetics
Public URL
Publisher URL


Reda Felfel _ M3 Department.pdf (1.5 Mb)

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