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Investigating Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering of continuous-variable bipartite states by non-Gaussian pseudospin measurements


Yu Xiang

Buqing Xu


Qiongyi He


Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering is an asymmetric form of correlations which is intermediate between quantum entanglement and Bell nonlocality, and can be exploited as a resource for quantum communication with one untrusted party. In particular, steering of continuous-variable Gaussian states has been extensively studied theoretically and experimentally, as a fundamental manifestation of the EPR paradox. While most of these studies focused on quadrature measurements for steering detection, two recent works revealed that there exist Gaussian states which are only steerable by suitable non-Gaussian measurements. In this paper we perform a systematic investigation of EPR steering of bipartite Gaussian states by pseudospin measurements, complementing and extending previous findings. We first derive the density-matrix elements of two-mode squeezed thermal Gaussian states in the Fock basis, which may be of independent interest. We then use such a representation to investigate steering of these states as detected by a simple nonlinear criterion, based on second moments of the correlation matrix constructed from pseudospin operators. This analysis reveals previously unexplored regimes where non-Gaussian measurements are shown to be more effective than Gaussian ones to witness steering of Gaussian states in the presence of local noise. We further consider an alternative set of pseudospin observables, whose expectation value can be expressed more compactly in terms of Wigner functions for all two-mode Gaussian states. However, according to the adopted criterion, these observables are found to be always less sensitive than conventional Gaussian observables for steering detection. Finally, we investigate continuous-variable Werner states, which are non-Gaussian mixtures of Gaussian states, and find that pseudospin measurements are always more effective than Gaussian ones to reveal their steerability. Our results provide useful insights on the role of non-Gaussian measurements in characterizing quantum correlations of Gaussian and non-Gaussian states of continuous-variable quantum systems.


Xiang, Y., Xu, B., Mišta, L., Tufarelli, T., He, Q., & Adesso, G. (2017). Investigating Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering of continuous-variable bipartite states by non-Gaussian pseudospin measurements. Physical Review A, 96(4),

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Sep 25, 2017
Publication Date Oct 18, 2017
Deposit Date Oct 20, 2017
Publicly Available Date Oct 20, 2017
Journal Physical Review A
Print ISSN 2469-9926
Electronic ISSN 2469-9926
Publisher American Physical Society
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 96
Issue 4
Public URL
Publisher URL


PhysRevA.96.pdf (738 Kb)

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