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The Validity of the SNAP-IV in Children Displaying ADHD Symptoms

Hall, Charlotte L.; Guo, Boliang; Valentine, Althea Z.; Groom, Madeline J.; Daley, David; Sayal, Kapil; Hollis, Chris


Associate Professor

Althea Z. Valentine

David Daley

Professor of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

Professor of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Digital Mental Health


The Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham Rating Scale (SNAP-IV) is a widely used scale that measures the core symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, there are contradictory findings regarding factor structure. Factor structure and measurement equivalence/invariance (ME/I) analysis on parent and teacher SNAP-IV for children referred for an ADHD assessment (n = 250; 6-17 years), revealed a 2-factor structure provided the best fit. SNAP-IV scores were also compared with clinician diagnosis of ADHD and research diagnoses of ADHD and hyperkinetic disorder (HKD). Parent ratings of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity were good predictors of research but not clinician diagnosis. For teacher ratings, only hyperactivity/impulsivity scores were associated with research and clinician diagnosis. SNAP-IV scores showed high sensitivity but low specificity to clinician diagnosis. The SNAP-IV is a valid outcome measure for use in RCTs and clinical settings, and is best used as a screening rather than a diagnostic tool for ADHD.


Hall, C. L., Guo, B., Valentine, A. Z., Groom, M. J., Daley, D., Sayal, K., & Hollis, C. (2020). The Validity of the SNAP-IV in Children Displaying ADHD Symptoms. Assessment, 27(6), 1258-1271.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Mar 8, 2019
Online Publication Date Apr 16, 2019
Publication Date Sep 1, 2020
Deposit Date Mar 13, 2019
Publicly Available Date Mar 13, 2019
Journal Assessment
Print ISSN 1073-1911
Electronic ISSN 1552-3489
Publisher SAGE Publications
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 27
Issue 6
Pages 1258-1271
Keywords Exploratory Structural Equation Modelling; Factor Analysis; Criterion validity
Public URL
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