The Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham Rating Scale (SNAP-IV) is a widely used scale that measures the core symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, there are contradictory findings regarding factor structure. Factor structure and measurement equivalence/invariance (ME/I) analysis on parent and teacher SNAP-IV for children referred for an ADHD assessment (n = 250; 6-17 years), revealed a 2-factor structure provided the best fit. SNAP-IV scores were also compared with clinician diagnosis of ADHD and research diagnoses of ADHD and hyperkinetic disorder (HKD). Parent ratings of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity were good predictors of research but not clinician diagnosis. For teacher ratings, only hyperactivity/impulsivity scores were associated with research and clinician diagnosis. SNAP-IV scores showed high sensitivity but low specificity to clinician diagnosis. The SNAP-IV is a valid outcome measure for use in RCTs and clinical settings, and is best used as a screening rather than a diagnostic tool for ADHD.
Hall, C. L., Guo, B., Valentine, A. Z., Groom, M. J., Daley, D., Sayal, K., & Hollis, C. (2020). The Validity of the SNAP-IV in Children Displaying ADHD Symptoms. Assessment, 27(6), 1258-1271. https://doi.org/10.1177/1073191119842255