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Understanding the effect of indoor air pollution on pneumonia in children under five in low and middle income countries: a systematic review of evidence

Adaji, Enemona Emmanuel ; Ekezie, Winifred; Clifford, Michael; Phalkey, Revati

Authors

Enemona Emmanuel Adaji

Winifred Ekezie

Michael Clifford

Revati Phalkey



Abstract

Background

Exposure to indoor air pollution increases the risk of pneumonia in children, accounting for about a million deaths globally. This study investigates the individual effect of solid fuel, carbon monoxide
(CO), black carbon (BC) and PM2.5 on pneumonia in children under five in low and middle-income countries.

Methods

A systematic review was conducted to identify peer-reviewed and grey full-text documents without restrictions to study design, language or year of publication using nine databases, (EMBASE, PUBMED, EBSCO/CINAHL, SCOPUS , Web of Knowledge, WHO Library Database (WHOLIS), Integrated Regional Information Networks (IRIN), The World Meteorological Organization (WMO-WHO) and
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)).

Results

Exposure to solid fuel use showed a significant association to childhood pneumonia. Exposure to CO showed no association to childhood pneumonia. PM2.5 did not show any association when physically measured, while eight studies that used solid fuel as a proxy for PM2.5 all reported significant associations.

Conclusion

This review highlights the need to standardise measurement of exposure and outcome variables when investigating the effect of air pollution on pneumonia in children under 5. Future studies should account for BC, PM1 and the interaction between indoor and outdoor pollution and its cumulative impact on childhood pneumonia.

Journal Article Type Article
Publication Date 2019-02
Journal Environmental Science and Pollution Research
Print ISSN 0944-1344
Electronic ISSN 1614-7499
Publisher Springer Verlag
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 26
Issue 4
Pages 3208–3225
APA6 Citation Adaji, E. E., Ekezie, W., Clifford, M., & Phalkey, R. (2019). Understanding the effect of indoor air pollution on pneumonia in children under five in low and middle income countries: a systematic review of evidence. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 26(4), 3208–3225. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-3769-1
DOI https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-3769-1
Keywords Indoor air pollution; Black Carbon; Particulate Matter; Carbon Monoxide; Pneumonia;
Publisher URL https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11356-018-3769-1

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