A systematic expression quantifying the wave energy skewing phenomenon as a function of the mechanical characteristics of a non-isotropic structure is derived in this study. A structure of arbitrary anisotropy, layering and geometric complexity is modelled through Finite Elements (FEs) coupled to a periodic structure wave scheme. A generic approach for efficiently computing the angular sensitivity of the wave slowness for each wave type, direction and frequency is presented. The approach does not involve any finite differentiation scheme and is therefore computationally efficient and not prone to the associated numerical errors.
Chronopoulos, D. (2017). Wave steering effects in anisotropic composite structures: direct calculation of the energy skew angle through a finite element scheme. Ultrasonics, 73, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultras.2016.08.020