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Provision of pharmaceutical care by community pharmacists across Europe: is it developing and spreading?

Costa, Filipa A.; Scullin, Claire; Al-Taani, Ghaith; Hawwa, Ahmed F.; Anderson, Claire; Bezverhni, Zinaida; Binakaj, Zahida; Cordina, Maria; Foulon, Veerle; Bikuna, Borja Garcia de; de Gier, Han; Granås, Anne Gerd; Grinstova, Olga; Griese-Mammen, Nina; Grincevicius, Jonas; Grinceviciene, Svitrigaile; Kaae, Susanne; Kubiliene, Loreta; Mariño, Eduardo L.; Martins, Silvia; Modamio, Pilar; Nadin, Giancarlo; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Obarcanin, Emina; Tadic, Ivana; Tasic, Ljiljana; McElnay, James C.; Hersberger, Kurt E.; Westerlund, Tommy

Authors

Filipa A. Costa

Claire Scullin

Ghaith Al-Taani

Ahmed F. Hawwa

Zinaida Bezverhni

Zahida Binakaj

Maria Cordina

Veerle Foulon

Borja Garcia de Bikuna

Han de Gier

Anne Gerd Granås

Olga Grinstova

Nina Griese-Mammen

Jonas Grincevicius

Svitrigaile Grinceviciene

Susanne Kaae

Loreta Kubiliene

Eduardo L. Mariño

Silvia Martins

Pilar Modamio

Giancarlo Nadin

Lotte Stig Nørgaard

Emina Obarcanin

Ivana Tadic

Ljiljana Tasic

James C. McElnay

Kurt E. Hersberger

Tommy Westerlund



Abstract

Rationale, Aims & Objectives: Pharmaceutical care involves patient-centred pharmacist activity to improve medicines management by patients. The implementation of this service in a comprehensive manner, however, requires considerable organisation and effort and indeed it is often not fully implemented in care settings.
The main objective was to assess how pharmaceutical care provision within community pharmacy has evolved over time in Europe.
Method: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey of community pharmacies, using a modified version of the Behavioural Pharmaceutical Care Scale (BPCS) was conducted in late 2012/early 2013 within 16 European countries and compared with an earlier assessment conducted in 2006.
Results: The provision of comprehensive pharmaceutical care has slightly improved in all European countries that participated in both editions of this survey (n=8) with progress being made particularly in Denmark and Switzerland. Moreover, there was a wider country uptake, indicating spread of the concept. However, due to a number of limitations, the results should be interpreted with caution. Using combined data from participating countries, the provision of pharmaceutical care was positively correlated with the participation of the community pharmacists in patient-centred activities, routine use of pharmacy software with access to clinical data, participation in multi-disciplinary team meetings and having specialised education.
Conclusion: The present study demonstrated a slight evolution in self-reported provision of pharmaceutical care by community pharmacists across Europe, as measured by the BPCS. The slow progress suggests a range of barriers which are preventing pharmacists moving beyond traditional roles. Support from professional bodies and more patient centred community pharmacy contracts, including remuneration for pharmaceutical care services, are likely to be required if quicker progress is to be made in the future.

Citation

Costa, F. A., Scullin, C., Al-Taani, G., Hawwa, A. F., Anderson, C., Bezverhni, Z., …Westerlund, T. (2017). Provision of pharmaceutical care by community pharmacists across Europe: is it developing and spreading?. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, 23(6), https://doi.org/10.1111/jep.12783

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date May 18, 2017
Online Publication Date Aug 1, 2017
Publication Date Dec 1, 2017
Deposit Date Sep 14, 2017
Publicly Available Date Aug 2, 2018
Journal Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
Print ISSN 1356-1294
Electronic ISSN 1365-2753
Publisher Wiley
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 23
Issue 6
DOI https://doi.org/10.1111/jep.12783
Keywords pharmaceutical care; implementation; Europe; medication review; pharmacy services; medicines use
Public URL http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/id/eprint/46179
Publisher URL http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jep.12783/abstract
Copyright Statement Copyright information regarding this work can be found at the following address: http://eprints.nottingh.../end_user_agreement.pdf
Additional Information This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Filipa A. Costa RPharm, MSc, PhD Assistant Professor, Researcher, Consultant for Professional Strategic Planning1, Claire Scullin BSc, MSc, PhD Research Fellow, Ghaith Al-Taani BSc, MSc, PhD Assistant Professor, Ahmed F. Hawwa BSc, PhD Visiting Researcher, Claire Anderson B Pharm, PhD Professor of Social Pharmacy, Zinaida Bezverhni PhD, MPH Associate Professor6, Zahida Binakaj M.Sci. Pharm Pharmacist7, Maria Cordina B. Pharm (Hons) (Melit.) PhD (QUB) Professor, Veerle Foulon PhD Professor, Borja Garcia de Bikuña MSc (Pharm), PhD Community Pharmacist, Han de Gier PharmD, PhD Professor of Pharmaceutical Care, Anne Gerd Granås MSc (Pharm), PhD Professor, Olga Grinstova PhD, MPH Lecturer, Nina Griese-Mammen B. Pharm, PhD Head of the Division Scientific Evaluation at ABDA, Jonas Grincevicius PhD RPh Associate Professor, Svitrigaile Grinceviciene PhD, LL.M. MD Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Susanne Kaae MSc (Pharm) PhD Associate Professor, Loreta Kubiliene PhD, RPh Associate Professor, Eduardo L. Mariño MSc (Pharm), PhD Professor, Silvia Martins MSc Hospital Pharmacist, Researcher, Pilar Modamio MSc (Pharm), PhD Associate Professor, Giancarlo Nadin PhD Adjunct Professor of Marketing, Lotte Stig Nørgaard MSc (Pharm), PhD Associate Professor, Emina Obarcanin PharmD, PhD Clinical Pharmacist & Scientific Staff Member, Ivana Tadic PhD Assistant Professor, Ljiljana Tasic PhD Professor, James C. McElnay BSc (Pharm), PhD Professor, Kurt E. Hersberger MSc, PhD Professor andTommy Westerlund MSc (Pharm), MSc, PhD Associate Professor, which has been published in final form at http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jep.12783. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving.