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A proposed biomass char classification system

Lester, Edward; Avila, Claudio; Pang, Cheng Heng; Williams, Orla; Perkins, Joseph; Gaddipatti⁠, Sanyasi; Tucker, Gregory A.; Barraza, Juan Manuel; Trujillo-Uribe, María Patricia; Wu, Tao


Claudio Avila

Cheng Heng Pang

Joseph Perkins

Sanyasi Gaddipatti⁠

Gregory A. Tucker

Juan Manuel Barraza

María Patricia Trujillo-Uribe

Tao Wu


A new classification system is proposed for the morphological characterisation of char structures from biomass. These char structures are unlike the coal chars that have an established nomenclature via the International Committee of Coal and Organic Petrology (ICCP) which divides char structures into thin walled and thick walled spheres and networks, mixed dense and mixed porous, fusinoids and solids. The chars from biomass show a tendency, depending on heating regime, to produce different types of internal pore structure (cellular and porous) and aspect ratio (high and low) compared with coal chars. For this reason a new classification system has been developed to cover these new structures which should assist in combustion, co-firing and gasification research where these intermediate char structures play an important role in conversion efficiency. Low heating rates (using a muffle furnace at 1000°C and 3min) were used to create chars from 9 different biomass types, with a range of lignocellulosic compositions. Char type appeared to depend on the biomass type itself and original lignocellulosic composition (cellulose, lignin and hemicellulose content) and cell structure.


Lester, E., Avila, C., Pang, C. H., Williams, O., Perkins, J., Gaddipatti⁠, S., …Wu, T. (2018). A proposed biomass char classification system. Fuel, 232,

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date May 29, 2018
Online Publication Date Jul 3, 2018
Publication Date Nov 15, 2018
Deposit Date Jun 11, 2018
Publicly Available Date Jul 3, 2018
Journal Fuel
Print ISSN 0016-2361
Electronic ISSN 1873-7153
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 232
Keywords Biomass char; Morphology; Cellular; Porosity; Aspect ratio; Solids; Pyrolysis
Public URL
Publisher URL
Copyright Statement Copyright information regarding this work can be found at the following address:


Char 1-s2.0-S0016236118309980-main.pdf (2.3 Mb)

Copyright Statement
Copyright information regarding this work can be found at the following address:

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