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Supramolecular networks stabilise and functionalise black phosphorus

Supramolecular networks stabilise and functionalise black phosphorus Thumbnail


Vladimir V. Korolkov

Ivan G. Timokhin

Rolf Haubrichs

Emily F. Smith

Lixu Yang

Sihai Yang

Neil R. Champness



© 2017 The Author(s). The limited stability of the surface of black phosphorus (BP) under atmospheric conditions is a significant constraint on the exploitation of this layered material and its few layer analogue, phosphorene, as an optoelectronic material. Here we show that supramolecular networks stabilised by hydrogen bonding can be formed on BP, and that these monolayer-thick films can passivate the BP surface and inhibit oxidation under ambient conditions. The supramolecular layers are formed by solution deposition and we use atomic force microscopy to obtain images of the BP surface and hexagonal supramolecular networks of trimesic acid and melamine cyanurate (CA.M) under ambient conditions. The CA.M network is aligned with rows of phosphorus atoms and forms large domains which passivate the BP surface for more than a month, and also provides a stable supramolecular platform for the sequential deposition of 1,2,4,5-tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)benzene to form supramolecular heterostructures.


Korolkov, V. V., Timokhin, I. G., Haubrichs, R., Smith, E. F., Yang, L., Yang, S., …Beton, P. H. (2017). Supramolecular networks stabilise and functionalise black phosphorus. Nature Communications, 8(1), Article 1385.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Oct 16, 2017
Online Publication Date Nov 9, 2017
Publication Date Nov 9, 2017
Deposit Date Nov 14, 2017
Publicly Available Date Nov 14, 2017
Journal Nature Communications
Electronic ISSN 2041-1723
Publisher Nature Publishing Group
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 8
Issue 1
Article Number 1385
Public URL
Publisher URL


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