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The effectiveness of a psychoeducation intervention delivered via WhatsApp for mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: a randomized controlled trial

Hemdi, A.; Daley, David

Authors

A. Hemdi

DAVID DALEY david.daley@nottingham.ac.uk
Professor of Psychological Intervention_ and Behaviour Change



Abstract

Background

Mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) report high levels of stress and lower levels of well-being than parents of typically developing children. Current interventions for ASD typically focus on working with the child rather than delivering strategies to help support parents.

Objective

To evaluate the effectiveness of a psychoeducation intervention developed to support mothers of children with ASD in Saudi Arabia.

Method

Sixty-two mothers (23–52 years) of children (26–78 months) were recruited to a multisite randomized controlled trials of the intervention. The intervention consisted of one face-to-face session (60 min) and four virtual sessions (30 min each) delivered using WhatsApp. Parenting stress was the primary outcome, with secondary outcomes focusing on maternal depression, anxiety, and happiness, and child behaviour problems and ASD symptoms. Data were collected at baseline T1, immediately postintervention T2 and 8-week follow-up T3.

Results

One-way analysis of covariance was used at T2 and T3 with T1 scores entered as a covariate. Improvements were found at T2 for stress (F = 234.34, p = .00, and d = −1.52) and depression (F = 195.70, p = .00, and d = −2.14) but not anxiety, and these results were maintained at T3. Changes in child behaviour problems were limited to improvements in hyperactivity at T2 (F = 133.66, p = .00, and d = −1.54). Although changes in stress and depression were statistically significant, change to clinically normal levels was limited to depression. None of the participants had recovered after the intervention (Parent Stress Index Short Form stress scores), whereas 23 mothers (71.87%) in the intervention group had recovered at T2 and 22 (68.75%) at T3 (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale depression scores).

Conclusion

This intervention with WhatsApp support is beneficial but may need to be augmented with other forms of support for mothers of children with ASD including more condensed sessions on stress and interventions targeting anxiety.

Citation

Hemdi, A., & Daley, D. (in press). The effectiveness of a psychoeducation intervention delivered via WhatsApp for mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: a randomized controlled trial. Child: Care, Health and Development, https://doi.org/10.1111/cch.12520

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Aug 17, 2017
Online Publication Date Sep 20, 2017
Deposit Date Sep 26, 2017
Publicly Available Date Sep 21, 2019
Journal Child: Care, Health and Development
Print ISSN 0305-1862
Electronic ISSN 1365-2214
Publisher Wiley
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
DOI https://doi.org/10.1111/cch.12520
Keywords ASD; Autism spectrum disorder; Interventions; Mothers; Training; Well-being
Public URL http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/id/eprint/46729
Publisher URL https://doi.org/10.1111/cch.12520
Copyright Statement Copyright information regarding this work can be found at the following address: http://eprints.nottingh.../end_user_agreement.pdf
Additional Information This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Hemdi A, Daley D. The Effectiveness of a Psychoeducation Intervention delivered via WhatsApp for mothers of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: A randomized controlled trial. Child Care Health Dev. 2017;1–9. https://doi.org/10.1111/cch.12520, which has been published in final form at https://doi.org/10.1111/cch.12520. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving.

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Copyright Statement
Copyright information regarding this work can be found at the following address: http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/end_user_agreement.pdf





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