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Multi-branched benzylidene ketone based photoinitiators for multiphoton fabrication

Zhang, Fan; Hu, Q.; Castanon, A.; He, Y.; Liu, Y.; Paul, B.T.; Tuck, C.J.; Hague, Richard J.M.; Wildman, Ricky D.

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Fan Zhang

Q. Hu

A. Castanon

Transitional Assistant Professor

Y. Liu

B.T. Paul

Professor of Materials Engineering

Professor of Additive Manufacturing

Professor of Multiphase Flow and Mechanics


In this article, we report the synthesis of a series of multi-branched benzylidene (BI) ketone-based photo-initiators for two-photon polymerisation based 3D printing/additive manufacturing. Resins prepared by the addition of 1 wt.% of these initiators were processed in a commercial 2 photon polymerisation system to fabricate 3D woodpile structures, the qualities of which were examined to determine the efficiencies of the initiators. The results showed that compared to commercial initiator Irgacure 369, the four-branched initiator 4-BI exhibited excellent performance with higher writing speeds and broader ideal processing windows. The successful fabrication of complex 3D structures at high writing speeds (up to 100 mm/s) indicated that the four-branched initiator 4-BI could potentially increase the fabrication efficiency and hence become a promising initiator for two-photon polymerisation.


Zhang, F., Hu, Q., Castanon, A., He, Y., Liu, Y., Paul, B., …Wildman, R. D. (2017). Multi-branched benzylidene ketone based photoinitiators for multiphoton fabrication. Additive Manufacturing, 16, 206-212.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jun 17, 2017
Online Publication Date Jun 23, 2017
Publication Date 2017-08
Deposit Date Dec 4, 2017
Publicly Available Date Dec 4, 2017
Journal Additive Manufacturing
Print ISSN 2214-8604
Electronic ISSN 2214-8604
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 16
Pages 206-212
Keywords two photon polymerization; photo-initiator; TPIP; micro-fabrication
Public URL
Publisher URL
Additional Information This article is maintained by: Elsevier; Article Title: Multi-branched benzylidene ketone based photoinitiators for multiphoton fabrication; Journal Title: Additive Manufacturing; CrossRef DOI link to publisher maintained version:; Content Type: article; Copyright: © 2017 Published by Elsevier B.V.


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