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A multi-national European cross-sectional study of feline calicivirus epidemiology, diversity and vaccine cross-reactivity

Afonso, Maria M.; Pinchbeck, Gina L.; Smith, Shirley L.; Daly, Janet M.; Gaskell, Rosalind M.; Dawson, Susan; Radford, Alan D.

Authors

Maria M. Afonso

Gina L. Pinchbeck

Shirley L. Smith

Janet M. Daly

Rosalind M. Gaskell

Susan Dawson

Alan D. Radford



Abstract

Background

Feline calicivirus (FCV) is an important pathogen of cats for which vaccination is regularly practised. Long-term use of established vaccine antigens raises the theoretical possibility that field viruses could become resistant. This study aimed to assess the current ability of the FCV-F9 vaccine strain to neutralise a randomly collected contemporary panel of FCV field strains collected prospectively in six European countries.
Methods

Veterinary practices (64) were randomly selected from six countries (UK, Sweden, Netherlands, Germany, France and Italy). Oropharyngeal swabs were requested from 30 (UK) and 40 (other countries) cats attending each practice. Presence of FCV was determined by virus isolation, and risk factors for FCV shedding assessed by multivariable logistic regression. Phylogenetic analyses were used to describe the FCV population structure. In vitro virus neutralisation assays were performed to evaluate FCV-F9 cross-reactivity using plasma from four vaccinated cats.
Results

The overall prevalence of FCV was 9.2%. Risk factors positively associated with FCV shedding included multi-cat households, chronic gingivostomatitis, younger age, not being neutered, as well as residing in certain countries. Phylogenetic analysis showed extensive variability and no countrywide clusters. Despite being first isolated in the 1950s, FCV-F9 clustered with contemporary field isolates. Plasma raised to FCV-F9 neutralized 97% of tested isolates (titres 1:4 to 1:5792), with 26.5%, 35.7% and 50% of isolates being neutralized by 5, 10 and 20 antibody units respectively.
Conclusions

This study represents the largest prospective analysis of FCV diversity and antigenic cross-reactivity at a European level. The scale and random nature of sampling used gives confidence that the FCV isolates used are broadly representative of FCVs that cats are exposed to in these countries. The in vitro neutralisation results suggest that antibodies raised to FCV-F9 remain broadly cross-reactive to contemporary FCV isolates across the European countries sampled.

Journal Article Type Article
Publication Date May 9, 2017
Journal Vaccine
Print ISSN 0264-410X
Electronic ISSN 0264-410X
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 35
Issue 20
Pages 2753-2760
APA6 Citation Afonso, M. M., Pinchbeck, G. L., Smith, S. L., Daly, J. M., Gaskell, R. M., Dawson, S., & Radford, A. D. (2017). A multi-national European cross-sectional study of feline calicivirus epidemiology, diversity and vaccine cross-reactivity. Vaccine, 35(20), 2753-2760. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2017.03.030
DOI https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2017.03.030
Keywords Feline calicivirus; Vaccine; Neutralisation; Phylogeny; Epidemiology
Publisher URL http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0264410X17303365
Copyright Statement Copyright information regarding this work can be found at the following address: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0
Additional Information This article is maintained by: Elsevier; Article Title: A multi-national European cross-sectional study of feline calicivirus epidemiology, diversity and vaccine cross-reactivity; Journal Title: Vaccine; CrossRef DOI link to publisher maintained version: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2017.03.030; Content Type: article; Copyright: © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

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Copyright Statement
Copyright information regarding this work can be found at the following address: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0





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