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The effect of laser remelting on the surface chemistry of Ti6al4V components fabricated by selective laser melting

Vaithilingam, Jayasheelan; Goodridge, Ruth D.; Hague, Richard J.M.; Christie, Steven D.R.; Edmondson, Steve


Jayasheelan Vaithilingam

Professor of Additive Manufacturing

Professor of Additive Manufacturing

Steven D.R. Christie

Steve Edmondson


Surface remelting/skin scanning of components is generally performed during the selective laser melting (SLM) process to improve the surface quality of a part. However, the chemical effects of surface remelting are not well understood. In this study, cuboidal parts fabricated with and without laser remelting were characterised using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), surface profilometry and X-ray photoelectron spectrophotometry (XPS). The SEM images showed a low-amplitude undulating pattern was observed on both surfaces. The surface chemistries of the surface remelted/skin scanned (SK) and non-surface remelted/non-skin scanned (NSK) samples were observed to significantly differ in their elemental composition. The thickness of the surface oxide layer of the SK surface was double that of the NSK surface. Also, the contribution of the major alloying elements, including titanium and aluminium, on the surface oxide layer varied for both NSK and SK surfaces. The surface chemistry of the NSK and SK surface was significantly different to a conventionally forged (CF) Ti6Al4V surface. The rate of decrease of oxide with depth was in the order of CF > NSK > SK. Although surface remelting is useful in rendering improved surface quality, its impact on surface chemistry should be carefully considered.


Vaithilingam, J., Goodridge, R. D., Hague, R. J., Christie, S. D., & Edmondson, S. (2016). The effect of laser remelting on the surface chemistry of Ti6al4V components fabricated by selective laser melting. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 232,

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jan 21, 2016
Online Publication Date Jan 24, 2016
Publication Date Jun 1, 2016
Deposit Date Jun 17, 2016
Publicly Available Date Jun 17, 2016
Journal Journal of Materials Processing Technology
Print ISSN 0924-0136
Electronic ISSN 0924-0136
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 232
Keywords Additive manufacturing; 3D-printing; Selective laser melting; Ti6Al4V; Surface remelting; Surface chemistry
Public URL
Publisher URL


J_Vaithilingam_Laser_remelting.pdf (2.6 Mb)

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