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Crowdsourcing good landmarks for in-vehicle navigation systems

Large, David R.; Burnett, Gary; Benford, Steve; Oliver, Keith


Senior Research Fellow

Professor of Transport Human Factors

Dunford Chair in Computer Science

Keith Oliver


Augmenting navigation systems with landmarks has been posited as a method of improving the effectiveness of the technology and enhancing drivers’ engagement with the environment. However, good navigational landmarks are both laborious to collect and difficult to define. This research aimed to devise a game concept, which could be played by passengers in cars, and would collect useful landmark data as a by-product. The paper describes how a virtual graffiti tagging game concept was created and tested during on-road trials with 38 participants. The data collected in the road trials were then validated using a survey, in which 100 respondents assessed the quality of the landmarks collected and their potential for reuse in navigation applications. Players of the game displayed a consensus in choosing where to place their graffiti tags with over 30% of players selecting the same object to tag in 10 of the 12 locations. Furthermore, significant correlation was found between how highly landmarks were rated in the survey and how frequently they were tagged during the game. The research provides evidence that using crowdsourcing games to collect landmarks does not require large numbers of people, or extensive coverage of an area, to produce suitable candidate landmarks for navigation.


Large, D. R., Burnett, G., Benford, S., & Oliver, K. (in press). Crowdsourcing good landmarks for in-vehicle navigation systems. Behaviour and Information Technology, 35(10),

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Feb 22, 2016
Online Publication Date Mar 28, 2016
Deposit Date Apr 7, 2017
Publicly Available Date Apr 7, 2017
Journal Behaviour & Information Technology
Print ISSN 0144-929X
Electronic ISSN 1362-3001
Publisher Taylor & Francis Open
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 35
Issue 10
Keywords crowdsourcing; graffiti-tagging; games; survey; landmarks; in-vehicle navigation systems
Public URL
Publisher URL
Copyright Statement Copyright information regarding this work can be found at the following address:
Additional Information This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in Behaviour & Information Technology on 28/03/2016, available online:


crowdsourcing landmarks-with figs Large.pdf (1.8 Mb)

Copyright Statement
Copyright information regarding this work can be found at the following address:

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