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Sociodemographic Variables, Clinical Features, and the Role of Preassessment Cross-Sex Hormones in Older Trans People

Bouman, Walter Pierre; Claes, Laurence; Marshall, Ellen; Pinner, Gill T.; Longworth, Julia; Maddox, Victoria; Witcomb, Gemma; Jimenez-Murcia, Susana; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Arcelus, Jon

Authors

Walter Pierre Bouman

Laurence Claes

Ellen Marshall

Julia Longworth

Victoria Maddox

Gemma Witcomb

Susana Jimenez-Murcia

Fernando Fernandez-Aranda

JON ARCELUS ALONSO Jon.Arcelus@nottingham.ac.uk
Clinical Professor in Mental Health & Transgender Health



Abstract

Introduction: As referrals to gender identity clinics have increased dramatically over the last few years, no studies focusing on older trans people seeking treatment are available.
Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of older trans people attending a national service and to investigate the influence of cross-sex hormones (CHT) on psychopathology.
Methods: Individuals over the age of 50 years old referred to a national gender identity clinic during a 30-month period were invited to complete a battery of questionnaires to measure psychopathology and clinical characteristics. Individuals on cross-sex hormones prior to the assessment were compared with those not on treatment for different variables measuring psychopathology.
Main Outcome Measures: Sociodemographic and clinical variables and measures of depression and anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale), victimization (Experiences of Transphobia Scale), social support (Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support), interpersonal functioning (Inventory of Interpersonal Problems), and nonsuicidal self-injury (Self-Injury Questionnaire).
Results: The sex ratio of trans females aged 50 years and older compared to trans males was 23.7:1. Trans males were removed for the analysis due to their small number (n ¼ 3). Participants included 71 trans females over the age of 50, of whom the vast majority were white, employed or retired, and divorced and had children. Trans females on CHT who came out as trans and transitioned at an earlier age were significantly less anxious, reported higher levels of self-esteem, and presented with fewer socialization problems. When controlling for socialization problems, differences in levels of anxiety but not self-esteem remained.
Conclusion: The use of cross-sex hormones prior to seeking treatment is widespread among older trans females and appears to be associated with psychological benefits. Existing barriers to access CHT for older trans people may need to be re-examined.

Citation

Bouman, W. P., Claes, L., Marshall, E., Pinner, G. T., Longworth, J., Maddox, V., …Arcelus, J. (2016). Sociodemographic Variables, Clinical Features, and the Role of Preassessment Cross-Sex Hormones in Older Trans People. Journal of Sexual Medicine, 13(4), 711-719. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsxm.2016.01.009

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jan 16, 2016
Publication Date 2016-04
Deposit Date Mar 1, 2016
Publicly Available Date Mar 1, 2016
Journal The Journal of Sexual Medicine
Print ISSN 1743-6095
Electronic ISSN 1743-6109
Publisher Wiley
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 13
Issue 4
Pages 711-719
DOI https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsxm.2016.01.009
Keywords Gender Dysphoria; Transsexualism; Aging; Midlife and Beyond; Mental Health; Hormone Treatment; Self-Esteem; Social Support
Public URL http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/id/eprint/32068
Publisher URL http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1743609516000862
Copyright Statement Copyright information regarding this work can be found at the following address: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0
Additional Information This article is maintained by: Elsevier; Article Title: Sociodemographic Variables, Clinical Features, and the Role of Preassessment Cross-Sex Hormones in Older Trans People; Journal Title: The Journal of Sexual Medicine; CrossRef DOI link to publisher maintained version: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsxm.2016.01.009; Content Type: article; Copyright: Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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Copyright Statement
Copyright information regarding this work can be found at the following address: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0





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