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Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) differentially affects inflammatory immune responses in human monocytes infected with viable Salmonella or stimulated with LPS

Askar, Basim Ali; Ibrahim, Hiba; Barrow, Paul; Foster, Neil

Authors

Basim Ali Askar svxba@nottingham.ac.uk

Hiba Ibrahim

Paul Barrow

Neil Foster



Abstract

We compared the effect of VIP on human blood monocytes infected with Salmonella typhimurium 4/74 or stimulated with LPS. VIP (10−7 M) increased monocyte viability by 24% and 9% when cultured for 24 h with 4/74 or Salmonella LPS (100 ng/ml), respectively. Significantly increased (P < 0.05) numbers of 4/74 were also recovered from monocytes co-cultured with VIP after 6 h post-infection (pi) and this remained high after 24 h pi. Both 4/74 and LPS increased (P < 0.05) the concentration of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 measured in monocyte supernatants. However, LPS induced this effect more rapidly while, with the exception of IL-6, 4/74 induced higher concentrations (P < 0.05). VIP significantly decreased (P < 0.05) TNF-α and IL-1β production by 4/74-infected monocytes after 6 pi, but only after 24 h in LPS-cultured monocytes. This trend was reversed for IL-6 production. However, TNF-α and IL-1β production by 4/74-infected monocytes, cultured with VIP, still remained higher (P < 0.05) than concentrations measured in supernatants cultured only with LPS. VIP also increased (P < 0.05) production of anti-inflammatory IL-10 in both 4/74 and LPS cultures after 24 h. We also show a differential effect of VIP on the expression of TNFα and IL-6 receptors, since VIP was only able to decreased expression in LPS-stimulated monocytes but not in 4/74-infected monocytes.

In conclusion, we show a differential effect of VIP on human monocytes infected with virulent Salmonella or stimulated with LPS. Our study suggests that the use of VIP in bacteraemia and/or sepsis may be limited to an adjunctive therapy to antibiotic treatment.

Citation

Askar, B. A., Ibrahim, H., Barrow, P., & Foster, N. (2015). Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) differentially affects inflammatory immune responses in human monocytes infected with viable Salmonella or stimulated with LPS. Peptides, 71, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.peptides.2015.06.009

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jun 16, 2015
Online Publication Date Jul 20, 2015
Publication Date Sep 30, 2015
Deposit Date Mar 27, 2017
Publicly Available Date Mar 27, 2017
Journal Peptides
Print ISSN 0196-9781
Electronic ISSN 1873-5169
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 71
DOI https://doi.org/10.1016/j.peptides.2015.06.009
Keywords VIP; Human monocytes; Salmonella
Public URL http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/id/eprint/41584
Publisher URL https://doi.org/10.1016/j.peptides.2015.06.009
Copyright Statement Copyright information regarding this work can be found at the following address: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0

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Copyright Statement
Copyright information regarding this work can be found at the following address: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0





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