Background: Mental health policy in many countries is oriented around recovery. The evidence base for service-level pro-recovery interventions is lacking.
Methods: Two-site cluster randomised controlled trial in England (ISRCTN02507940). REFOCUS is a one-year team-level intervention targeting staff behaviour (increasing focus on patient values, preferences, strengths, goal-striving) and staff-patient relationships (coaching, partnership). 27 community-based adult mental health teams were randomly allocated to treatment-as-usual (n=13) or treatment-as-usual plus REFOCUS (n=14). Baseline (n=403) and one-year follow-up (n=297) outcomes were assessed for randomly selected patients with psychosis, representing 88% of target recruitment. Primary outcome was recovery, assessed using Questionnaire about Processes of Recovery (QPR).
Findings: Intention-to-treat analysis using multiple imputation found no difference in QPR Total (control 40·0 (s.d.10·2), intervention 40·6 (s.d.10·1), adjusted difference 0·68, 95%CI: -1·7 to 3·1, p=·58), or sub-scales. Secondary outcomes which improved in the intervention group were functioning (adjusted difference 6·96, 95%CI 2·8 to 9·2, p