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Handwriting automaticity: the search for performance thresholds

Medwell, Jane; Wray, David

Handwriting automaticity: the search for performance thresholds Thumbnail


David Wray


Although handwriting has a fairly low status in literacy education, evidence is accumulating that it has an important role in written composition. In particular, handwriting automaticity appears to relate to success in composition. This relationship has been little explored in British contexts and we currently have little idea of what threshold performance levels might be. In this paper we report on two linked studies which attempted to identify performance levels in handwriting automaticity for children at two ages, below which their success in writing composition might be considered to be at risk. We conclude by suggesting interpolated levels for children at different ages, although we recognise the tentative nature of these suggestions.


Medwell, J., & Wray, D. (2014). Handwriting automaticity: the search for performance thresholds. Language and Education, 28(1), 34-51.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Dec 26, 2012
Online Publication Date Mar 14, 2013
Publication Date 2014
Deposit Date Aug 31, 2017
Publicly Available Date Aug 31, 2017
Journal Language and Education
Print ISSN 0950-0782
Electronic ISSN 1747-7581
Publisher Routledge
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 28
Issue 1
Pages 34-51
Keywords handwriting, composition, writing, performance, thresholds
Public URL
Publisher URL
Additional Information This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in Language and Education on 14/03/2013, available online:


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