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Actinomadura graeca sp. nov.: A novel producer of the macrocyclic antibiotic zelkovamycin

Tarantini, Francesco Saverio; Brunati, Mara; Taravella, Anna; Carrano, Lucia; Parenti, Francesco; Hong, Kar Wai; Williams, Paul; Chan, Kok Gan; Heeb, Stephan; Chan, Weng C.

Actinomadura graeca sp. nov.: A novel producer of the macrocyclic antibiotic zelkovamycin Thumbnail


Francesco Saverio Tarantini

Mara Brunati

Anna Taravella

Lucia Carrano

Francesco Parenti

Kar Wai Hong

Professor of Molecular Microbiology

Kok Gan Chan


As part of a screening programme for antibiotic-producing bacteria, a novel Actinomadura species was discovered from a soil sample collected in Santorini, Greece. Preliminary 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons highlighted Actinomadura macra as the most similar characterised species. However, whole-genome sequencing revealed an average nucleotide identity (ANI) value of 89% with A. macra, the highest among related species. Further phenotypic and chemotaxonomic analyses confirmed that the isolate represents a previously uncharacterised species in the genus Actinomadura, for which the name Actinomadura graeca sp. nov. is proposed (type strain 32-07T). The G+C content of A. graeca 32-07 is 72.36%. The cell wall contains DL-diaminopimelic acid, intracellular sugars are glucose, ribose and galactose, the predominant menaquinone is MK-9(H6), the major cellular lipid is phosphatidylinositol and fatty acids consist mainly of hexadecanoic acid. No mycolic acid was detected. Furthermore, A. graeca 32-07 has been confirmed as a novel producer of the non-ribosomal peptide antibiotic zelkovamycin and we report herein a provisional description of the unique biosynthetic gene cluster.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Nov 9, 2021
Online Publication Date Nov 30, 2021
Publication Date Nov 1, 2021
Deposit Date Nov 30, 2021
Publicly Available Date Dec 6, 2021
Journal PLoS ONE
Electronic ISSN 1932-6203
Publisher Public Library of Science (PLoS)
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 16
Issue 11
Article Number e0260413
Keywords Multidisciplinary
Public URL
Publisher URL


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