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Processing Apples to Puree or Juice Speeds Gastric Emptying and Reduces Postprandial Intestinal Volumes and Satiety in Healthy Adults

Krishnasamy, Shanthi; Lomer, Miranda Clare Elizabeth; Marciani, Luca; Hoad, Caroline Louise; Pritchard, Susan Elizabeth; Paul, Joe; Gowland, Penny Ann; Spiller, Robin Charles


Shanthi Krishnasamy

Miranda Clare Elizabeth Lomer

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Professor of Gastrointestinal Imaging

Susan Elizabeth Pritchard

Joe Paul

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Professor of Gastroenterology


Background: Whole apples produce greater satiety than processed apples, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear.
Objective: Our aim was to assess the intragastric processing of apple preparations and the associated small and large bowel contents using MRI.
Methods: An open label , 3-way crossover, randomized, controlled trial. 18 healthy adults [mean ± SD age, 25±4y; BMI(kg/m 2), 22.7±3.5] underwent serial MR scans on 3 occasions separated by 7d, after consumption of isocaloric (178 kcal) portions of either whole apples, apple puree or apple juice. Gastric emptying, small bowel water content (SBWC)(Primary endpoint), were measured at baseline and at 45 minutes intervals (0-270 min) post meal ingestion. Fullness and satiety were also assessed at each time point. Treatment effects between groups were analyzed using ANOVA.
Results: Gastric emptying half-time (GE t 50) was greater (P < 0.0001) after participants consumed whole apple (mean ± SEM), 65 (3.3) min) compared with when they consumed apple puree (41(2.8) min) or apple juice (38 (2.9) min), times which did not differ. Postprandial AUC (135-270 min) SBWC was also greater for whole apples than puree (P = 0.025) and juice (P = 0.0004) but juice and puree did not differ. AUC for fullness and satiety (0-270 min) post-ingestion was also greater (P = 0.002 and 0.004 respectively) for whole apple compared to juice but juice and puree did not differ.
Conclusions: Gastric emptying is slower after whole apples consumption causing greater sensation of fullness and satiety than puree or juice in healthy adults. Whole apples increased small bowel and colonic contents during the later phase of the study which may be relevant for subsequent food consumption. This study was registered at as NCT 03714464.


Krishnasamy, S., Lomer, M. C. E., Marciani, L., Hoad, C. L., Pritchard, S. E., Paul, J., …Spiller, R. C. (2020). Processing Apples to Puree or Juice Speeds Gastric Emptying and Reduces Postprandial Intestinal Volumes and Satiety in Healthy Adults. Journal of Nutrition, 150(11), 2890-2899.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jun 12, 2020
Online Publication Date Aug 17, 2020
Publication Date 2020-11
Deposit Date Jun 10, 2020
Publicly Available Date Aug 18, 2021
Journal The Journal of Nutrition
Print ISSN 0022-3166
Electronic ISSN 1541-6100
Publisher Oxford University Press (OUP)
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 150
Issue 11
Pages 2890-2899
Keywords gastric emptying; small bowel water; magnetic resonance imaging; appetite; apples, healthy adults
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