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Willingness to adhere to current UK low-risk alcohol guidelines to potentially reduce dementia risk: a national survey of people aged 50 and over

Oliveira, Deborah; Jones, Katy A.; Ozupek, Semanur; Ogollah, Reuben; Hogervorst, Eef; Orrell, Martin

Willingness to adhere to current UK low-risk alcohol guidelines to potentially reduce dementia risk: a national survey of people aged 50 and over Thumbnail


Deborah Oliveira

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Assistant Professor in Applied Psychology

Semanur Ozupek

Associate Professor of Medical Statistics and Clinical Trials

Eef Hogervorst

Director - Institute of Mental Health


Air pollution is a risk factor for cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality. A growing literature also links exposure to diverse air pollutants (e.g., nanoparticles, particulate matter, ozone, traffic-related air pollution) with brain health, including increased incidence of neurological and psychiatric disorders such as cognitive decline, dementia (including Alzheimer’s disease), anxiety, depression, and suicide. A critical gap in our understanding of adverse impacts of pollutants on the central nervous system (CNS) is the early initiating events triggered by pollutant inhalation that contribute to disease progression. Recent experimental evidence has shown that particulate matter and ozone, two common pollutants with differing characteristics and reactivity, can activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and release glucocorticoid stress hormones (cortisol in humans, corticosterone in rodents) as part of a neuroendocrine stress response. The brain is highly sensitive to stress: stress hormones affect cognition and mental health, and chronic stress can produce profound biochemical and structural changes in the brain. Chronic activation and/or dysfunction of the HPA axis also increases the burden on physiological stress response systems, conceptualized as allostatic load, and is a common pathway implicated in many diseases. The present paper provides an overview of how systemic stress-dependent biological responses common to particulate matter and ozone may provide insight into early CNS effects of pollutants, including links with oxidative, inflammatory, and metabolic processes. Evidence of pollutant effect modification by non-chemical stressors (e.g., socioeconomic position, psychosocial, noise), age (prenatal to elderly), and sex will also be reviewed in the context of susceptibility across the lifespan.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Apr 2, 2019
Online Publication Date Jun 4, 2019
Publication Date Jun 4, 2019
Deposit Date Apr 8, 2019
Publicly Available Date Apr 8, 2019
Journal Journal of Alzheimer's Disease
Print ISSN 1387-2877
Electronic ISSN 1875-8908
Publisher IOS Press
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 69
Issue 3
Pages 829-837
Keywords Clinical Psychology; Geriatrics and Gerontology; Psychiatry and Mental health; General Medicine
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