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Does ethnicity and culture affect the non- compliancy of cervical cancer screening?

Hennessey, Leah; Shaw, Ian; Okyere, Samuel; Adams, Gary G.

Does ethnicity and culture affect the non- compliancy of cervical cancer screening? Thumbnail


Leah Hennessey

Professor of Health Policy

Samuel Okyere


Background: Globally, an estimated 528,000 women develop cervical cancer (CC) each year, 266,000 of whom die from the disease. CC is the fourth most-common cancer in women worldwide and fourteenth in the UK, where 3,200 cases are diagnosed each year. In England CC is more common among White females and more common among women in deprived areas. In 1989, the NHS Cervical Screening
Programme (NHSCSP) developed a screening programme aimed at identifying women who may be at risk of developing CC. However, incidence rates for CC are projected to rise by 43% in the UK between 2014 and 2035, to 17 cases per 100,000 females by
2035, which suggests that there are ongoing barriers that may be preventing women from attending cervical cancer screening (CCS). The primary goal of this extended literature review, it to examine these barriers, with particular emphasis on the extent to which they are shaped by ethnicity.
Methodology: The research question and selection of relevant keywords were formulated using the PICO(S) framework. Six databases were used to search for relevant literature. Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Medline and SCOPUS provided literature specific to the nursing and allied health perspectives while PsycINFO and Applied Social Sciences Index and
Abstract (ASSIA) were used to find studies focused on sociological and psychological aspects of the research question. The use of the Cochrane database provided previous research papers relevant to the topic. All papers were screened for eligibility against the inclusion and exclusion criteria and critically appraised, and quality assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) checklist for systematic reviews, with reference to the Boland, Cherry & Dickson3 theories of methodology.

Results: Thematic analysis of the eight studies was carried out in line with the process outlined by Braun & Clark4 to identify recurring themes and barriers to CCS access: (1) Psychological and emotional barriers (2) Financial barriers (3) Perceptions and previous experiences.

Discussion: The barriers are applicable to women from all ethnicities, to varying degrees. However, females from marginalized, educationally deprived or underserved groups are less likely to attend CCS screening due to the barriers identified. This has immense implications for CC policy and practice.


Hennessey, L., Shaw, I., Okyere, S., & Adams, G. G. (2018). Does ethnicity and culture affect the non- compliancy of cervical cancer screening?. MOJ Public Health, 7(4), 219-227.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jul 31, 2018
Online Publication Date Aug 20, 2018
Publication Date Aug 20, 2018
Deposit Date Nov 21, 2018
Publicly Available Date Nov 21, 2018
Journal MOJ Public Health
Print ISSN 2379-6383
Publisher MedCrave Group
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 7
Issue 4
Pages 219-227
Public URL
Publisher URL