This dataset produces annual codes through expert analysis levels of de/centralization in Pakistan's federation between 1956 and 2020 (also covering East Pakistan until 1971). It includes three politico-institutional measures -'constitutional autonomy’, the ‘provinces’ institutional autonomy’ and the ‘central manipulation of provincial elections’. It also separately codes the legislative and administrative autonomy of 22 policy areas - Agriculture, Citizenship and immigration, Culture, Currency and money supply, Defence, Economic activity, Education - pre-tertiary, Education - tertiary, Elections and voting, Employment relations, Environmental protection, external affairs, Finance and securities, Health care, Language, Law - civil, Law - criminal, Law enforcement, Media, Natural resources, Social welfare and Transport. Finally, it codes five fiscal areas ‘proportion of own-source revenues out of total provincial revenues’, ‘restrictions on own-source revenues’, ‘proportion of federal conditional transfers out of total provincial revenues’, ‘degree of conditionality (for conditional grants only)’ and ‘provincial public sector borrowing autonomy’.
Adeney, K., & Boni, F. (2022). Provincial Autonomy in Pakistan, 1956-2020. [Dataset]. https://doi.org/10.5255/UKDA-SN-855992