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The impact of Recovery Colleges on mental health staff, services and society

Crowther, A.; Taylor, A.; Toney, R.; Meddings, S.; Whale, T.; Jennings, H.; Pollock, K.; Bates, P.; Henderson, C.; Waring, J.; Slade, M.


A. Crowther

A. Taylor

R. Toney

S. Meddings

T. Whale

H. Jennings

P. Bates

C. Henderson

J. Waring

Professor in Mental Health Recovery and Social Inclusion


Recovery Colleges are opening internationally. The evaluation focus has been on outcomes for Recovery College students who use mental health services. However, benefits may also arise for: staff who attend or co-deliver courses; the mental health and social care service hosting the Recovery College; and wider society. A theory-based change model characterising how Recovery Colleges impact at these higher levels is needed for formal evaluation of their impact, and to inform future Recovery College development. The aim of this study was to develop a stratified theory identifying candidate mechanisms of action and outcomes (impact) for Recovery Colleges at staff, services and societal levels.
Inductive thematic analysis of 44 publications identified in a systematised review was supplemented by collaborative analysis involving a lived experience advisory panel to develop a preliminary theoretical framework. This was refined through semi-structured interviews with 33 Recovery College stakeholders (service user students, peer/non-peer trainers, managers, community partners, clinicians) in three sites in England.
Candidate mechanisms of action and outcomes were identified at staff, services and societal levels. At the staff level, experiencing new relationships may change attitudes and associated professional practice. Identified outcomes for staff included: experiencing and valuing co-production; changed perceptions of service users; and increased passion and job motivation. At the services level, Recovery Colleges often develop somewhat separately from their host system, reducing the reach of the college into the host organisation but allowing development of an alternative culture giving experiential learning opportunities to staff around co-production and the role of a peer workforce. At the societal level, partnering with community-based agencies gave other members of the public opportunities for learning alongside people with mental health problems and enabled community agencies to work with people they might not have otherwise. Recovery Colleges also gave opportunities to beneficially impact on community attitudes.
This study is the first to characterise the mechanisms of action and impact of Recovery Colleges on mental health staff, mental health and social care services, and wider society. The findings suggest that a certain distance is needed in the relationship between the Recovery College and its host organisation if a genuine cultural alternative is to be created. Different strategies are needed depending on what level of impact is intended, and this study can inform decision-making about mechanisms to prioritise. Future research into Recovery Colleges should include contextual evaluation of these higher-level impacts, and investigate effectiveness and harms.


Crowther, A., Taylor, A., Toney, R., Meddings, S., Whale, T., Jennings, H., …Slade, M. (2019). The impact of Recovery Colleges on mental health staff, services and society. Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, 28(5), 481-488.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Sep 28, 2018
Online Publication Date Oct 23, 2018
Publication Date 2019-10
Deposit Date Oct 1, 2018
Publicly Available Date Apr 24, 2019
Journal Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
Print ISSN 2045-7960
Electronic ISSN 2045-7979
Publisher Cambridge University Press (CUP)
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 28
Issue 5
Pages 481-488
Keywords Recovery Colleges; mental health staff; mechanisms of action; outcomes
Public URL
Publisher URL
Additional Information License: Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2018