The present study evaluated the performance of a tracking task during which no, a small (subliminal: 20°) or a large (conscious: 60°) rotational perturbation was implemented. The instantaneous as well as carry-over effects of the perturbations were assessed. The subjective reports revealed that the subjects did not discriminate between the 0° and 20° perturbation conditions, despite increased trajectory error and directional trajectory changes in the latter than former condition, which suggests augmented error processing and task monitoring. Conversely, the 60° perturbation condition was characterized by subjective awareness in association with objective performance changes. Furthermore, a carry-over effect for the 60° but not for the 20° perturbation was observed when the distortion was removed midway into the trajectory. Together, the data underline distinct functioning of motor control and motor awareness with implications across time scales.
Serrien, D. J., & Spapé, M. M. (2011). Motor awareness and dissociable levels of action representation. Neuroscience Letters, 494(2), doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2011.02.077