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Motivational incentives and methylphenidate enhance electrophysiological correlates of error monitoring in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

Groom, Madeleine J.; Liddle, Elizabeth B.; Scerif, Gaia; Liddle, Peter F.; Batty, Martin J.; Liotti, Mario; Hollis, Chris

Authors

Gaia Scerif

Peter F. Liddle

Martin J. Batty

Mario Liotti

CHRIS HOLLIS chris.hollis@nottingham.ac.uk
Professor of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Digital Mental Health



Abstract

Background
Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are characterised by developmentally inappropriate levels of hyperactivity, impulsivity and/or inattention and are particularly impaired when performing tasks that require a high level of cognitive control. Methylphenidate (MPH) and motivational incentives may help improve cognitive control by enhancing the ability to monitor response accuracy and regulate performance accordingly.

Methods
Twenty-eight children with DSM-IV ADHD (combined type) aged 9–15 years and pairwise-matched typically developing children (CTRL) performed a go/no-go task in which the incentives attached to performance on no-go trials were manipulated. The ADHD group performed the task off and on their usual dose of MPH. CTRL children performed the task twice but were never medicated. EEG data were recorded simultaneously and two electrophysiological indices of error monitoring, the error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe) were measured. Amplitudes of each ERP were compared between diagnostic groups (CTRL, ADHD), medication days (Off MPH, On MPH) and motivational conditions (baseline – low incentive, reward, response cost).

Results
Error rates were lower in the reward and response cost conditions compared with baseline across diagnostic groups and medication days. ERN and Pe amplitudes were significantly reduced in ADHD compared with CTRL, and were significantly enhanced by MPH. Incentives significantly increased ERN and Pe amplitudes in the ADHD group but had no effect in CTRL. The effects of incentives did not interact with the effects of MPH on either ERP. Effect sizes were computed and revealed larger effects of MPH than incentives on ERN and Pe amplitudes.

Conclusions
The findings reveal independent effects of motivational incentives and MPH on two electrophysiological markers of error monitoring in children with ADHD, suggesting that each may be important tools for enhancing or restoring cognitive control in these children.

Citation

Groom, M. J., Liddle, E. B., Scerif, G., Liddle, P. F., Batty, M. J., Liotti, M., & Hollis, C. (2013). Motivational incentives and methylphenidate enhance electrophysiological correlates of error monitoring in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54(8), doi:10.1111/jcpp.12069

Journal Article Type Article
Publication Date Aug 1, 2013
Deposit Date Apr 24, 2014
Publicly Available Date Apr 24, 2014
Journal Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry
Print ISSN 0021-9630
Electronic ISSN 0021-9630
Publisher Wiley
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 54
Issue 8
DOI https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12069
Keywords ADHD, Electrophysiology, Error monitoring, Motivation, Methylphenidate, Stimulant medication
Public URL http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/id/eprint/2408
Publisher URL http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jcpp.12069/abstract
Copyright Statement Copyright information regarding this work can be found at the following address: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0

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Copyright Statement
Copyright information regarding this work can be found at the following address: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0





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