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Group memory rehabilitation for people with multiple sclerosis: a feasibility randomized controlled trial

Carr, Sara; das Nair, Roshan; Schwartz, Annette; Lincoln, Nadina


Sara Carr

Professor of Clinical Psychology and Neuropsychology

Annette Schwartz

Nadina Lincoln


Objective: To assess the feasibility and effectiveness of a group memory rehabilitation programme combining compensation and restitution strategies.
Design: Randomized controlled trial.

Setting: Community.

Participants: People with multiple sclerosis who reported memory difficulties were recruited.

Interventions: A group memory rehabilitation programme, comprising ten 1.5-hour sessions, was compared with a waiting list control.

Main measures: The primary outcome was the Everyday Memory Questionnaire. Secondary outcomes included the General Health Questionnaire 28 and MS Impact Scale administered four and eight months after randomization. In addition, those in the intervention group gave feedback about the intervention.

Results: Forty-eight participants were recruited. They were aged 34–72 years (mean 54.3, SD 11.0) and 33 (69%) were women. There were no significant differences between the two groups on the Everyday Memory Questionnaire or MS Impact Scale (P > 0.05) at four or eight months after randomization. However, the intervention group reported significantly better mood than controls on the GHQ-28 at eight months (P = 0.04). Participants showed minimal benefit from the memory rehabilitation programme on quantitative measures but the intervention was well received, as indicated by positive feedback at the end of the intervention.

Conclusions: There was no significant effect of the intervention on memory but there was a significant effect on mood. The results suggest a larger scale study is justified.


Carr, S., das Nair, R., Schwartz, A., & Lincoln, N. (2014). Group memory rehabilitation for people with multiple sclerosis: a feasibility randomized controlled trial. Clinical Rehabilitation, 28(6),

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Oct 13, 2013
Online Publication Date Jan 22, 2014
Publication Date Jun 1, 2014
Deposit Date Jun 30, 2016
Publicly Available Date Jun 30, 2016
Journal Clinical Rehabilitation
Print ISSN 0269-2155
Electronic ISSN 1477-0873
Publisher SAGE Publications
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 28
Issue 6
Keywords Multiple sclerosis, memory, rehabilitation, groups, cognition
Public URL
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