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Linking microscale morphologies to localised performance in singlet fission quantum dot photon multiplier thin films

Toolan, Daniel T. W.; Weir, Michael P.; Dowland, Simon; Winkel, Jurjen F.; Willmott, Jon R.; Zhang, Zhilong; Gray, Victor; Xiao, James; Petty, Anthony J.; Anthony, John E.; Greenham, Neil C.; Friend, Richard H.; Rao, Akshay; Jones, Richard A.L.; Ryan, Anthony J.


Daniel T. W. Toolan

Nottingham Research Fellowship

Simon Dowland

Jurjen F. Winkel

Jon R. Willmott

Zhilong Zhang

Victor Gray

James Xiao

Anthony J. Petty

John E. Anthony

Neil C. Greenham

Richard H. Friend

Akshay Rao

Richard A.L. Jones

Anthony J. Ryan


Hybrid small-molecule/quantum dot films have the potential to reduce thermalization losses in single-junction photovoltaics as photon multiplication devices. Here grazing incidence X-ray scattering, optical microscopy and IR fluorescence microscopy (probing materials at two distinct wavelengths), provide new insight into highly complex morphologies across nm and μm lengthscales to provide direct links between morphologies and photon multiplication performance. Results show that within the small molecule crystallites three different QD morphologies may be identified; (i) large quantum dot aggregates at the crystallite nucleus, (ii) relatively well-dispersed quantum dots and (iii) as aggregated quantum dots “swept” from the growing crystallite and that regions containing aggregate quantum dot features lead to relatively poor photon multiplication performance. These results establish how combinations of scattering and microscopy may be employed to reveal new insights into the structure and function of small molecule:quantum dot blends.


Toolan, D. T. W., Weir, M. P., Dowland, S., Winkel, J. F., Willmott, J. R., Zhang, Z., …Ryan, A. J. (2022). Linking microscale morphologies to localised performance in singlet fission quantum dot photon multiplier thin films. Journal of Materials Chemistry C, 10(31), 11192-11198.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jul 16, 2022
Online Publication Date Jul 18, 2022
Publication Date Jul 18, 2022
Deposit Date Sep 9, 2022
Publicly Available Date Sep 12, 2022
Journal Journal of Materials Chemistry C
Electronic ISSN 2050-7534
Publisher Royal Society of Chemistry
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 10
Issue 31
Pages 11192-11198
Public URL
Publisher URL


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