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Skull of the grey heron (Ardea cinerea ): detailed investigation of the orbital region


S.V. Bavdek

Z. Golob


V. Kubale


The skull of the grey heron (Ardea cinerea) was examined with an emphasis on describing the orbital region. In the young (circa sixteen to seventeen days old) heron, the frontal bone (os frontale) and nasal bone (os nasale) comprised separate paired bones, connected by sutures (sutura interfrontalis, sutura internasalis and sutura frontonasalis plana). In adult animals, the relationship between these bones was different: the left and right frontal bone and the left and right nasal bone had grown together, and the frontal bone and nasal bone had fused into a common frontonasal bone (os frontonasale). In the ectethmoid bone (os ectethmoidale), the main components comprised of the orbital and antorbital part of the ectethmoid plate (lamina ectethmoidalis orbitalis et antorbitalis), the lateral process (processus lateralis ectethmoidalis) and the tubercle (tuberculum ectethmoidalis); the left and right ectethmoid plates were fused together to form the ectethmoid sinus (sinus ectethmoidalis) between them. In the young heron, the anatomical and functional link between the frontal and lacrimal bones did not exist yet, nor did the osseous frame of the ectethmoid-lacrimal complex. Further research into the young heron skulls is needed. This article provides novel insights into the grey heron's orbital region.


Bavdek, S., Golob, Z., Janžekovič, F., Rutland, C. S., & Kubale, V. (2017). Skull of the grey heron (Ardea cinerea ): detailed investigation of the orbital region. Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia, 46(6),

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Aug 22, 2017
Online Publication Date Sep 20, 2017
Publication Date Dec 1, 2017
Deposit Date Oct 2, 2017
Publicly Available Date Sep 21, 2018
Journal Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Print ISSN 0340-2096
Electronic ISSN 1439-0264
Publisher Wiley
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 46
Issue 6
Public URL
Publisher URL
Additional Information This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Bavdek SV, Golob Z, Janžekovic F, Rutland CS, Kubale V. Skull of the grey heron (Ardea cinerea): Detailed investigation of the orbital region. Anat Histol Embryol. 2017;00:1–6, which has been published in final form at This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving.


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