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Comparative nanostructure analysis of gasoline turbocharged direct injection and diesel soot-in-oil with carbon black

La Rocca, A.; Pfau, S.A.; La Roca, A.; Haffner-Staton, E.; Rance, G.A.; Fay, M.W.; Brough, R.J.; Malizia, S.

Authors

A. La Rocca

S.A. Pfau

A. La Roca Antonino.Larocca@nottingham.ac.uk

E. Haffner-Staton

G.A. Rance

R.J. Brough

S. Malizia



Abstract

Two gasoline turbocharged direct injection (GTDI) and two diesel soot-in-oil samples were compared with one flame-generated soot sample. High resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging was employed for the initial qualitative assessment of the soot morphology. Carbon black and diesel soot both exhibit core-shell structures, comprising an amorphous core surrounded by graphene layers; only diesel soot has particles with multiple cores. In addition to such particles, GTDI soot also exhibits entirely amorphous structures, of which some contain crystalline particles only a few nanometers in diameter. Subsequent quantification of the nanostructure by fringe analysis indicates differences between the samples in terms of length, tortuosity, and separation of the graphitic fringes. The shortest fringes are exhibited by the GTDI samples, whilst the diesel soot and carbon black fringes are 9.7% and 15.1% longer, respectively. Fringe tortuosity is similar across the internal combustion engine samples, but lower for the carbon black sample. In contrast, fringe separation varies continuously among the samples. Raman spectroscopy further confirms the observed differences. The GTDI soot samples contain the highest fraction of amorphous carbon and defective graphitic structures, followed by diesel soot and carbon black respectively. The AD1:AG ratios correlate linearly with both the fringe length and fringe separation.

Journal Article Type Article
Publication Date Nov 30, 2018
Journal Carbon
Print ISSN 0008-6223
Electronic ISSN 0008-6223
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 139
Pages 342-352
APA6 Citation Pfau, S., La Roca, A., Haffner-Staton, E., Rance, G., Fay, M., Brough, R., & Malizia, S. (2018). Comparative nanostructure analysis of gasoline turbocharged direct injection and diesel soot-in-oil with carbon black. Carbon, 139, 342-352. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2018.06.050
DOI https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2018.06.050
Publisher URL https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0008622318306122
Copyright Statement Copyright information regarding this work can be found at the following address: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0

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Copyright Statement
Copyright information regarding this work can be found at the following address: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0





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