Skip to main content

Research Repository

Advanced Search

Job and worker turnover in German establishments

Bellmann, Lutz; Gerner, Hans-Dieter; Upward, Richard


Lutz Bellmann

Hans-Dieter Gerner


We use a simple non-parametric regression approach to measure the relationship between employment growth, hirings and separations in a large panel of German establishments over the period 1993--2014. Although it is often claimed that firms in Europe have less flexibility in their ability to hire and fire, we find that the relationship between employment growth and worker flows in German establishments is very similar to the behaviour of US establishments. The relationship is stable over time, even during the 2008-09 economic crisis, and across different types of establishment. We verify our results with independent measures from administrative data. We suggest that this result is due to: the strong relationship between employment reductions and voluntary separations; the low level of "churning"; and the heterogeneity of jobs within establishments.


Bellmann, L., Gerner, H., & Upward, R. (2018). Job and worker turnover in German establishments. Manchester School, 86(4), 417-445.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jan 26, 2017
Online Publication Date Mar 10, 2017
Publication Date Jul 1, 2018
Deposit Date Jan 31, 2017
Publicly Available Date Mar 11, 2019
Journal Manchester School
Print ISSN 1463-6786
Electronic ISSN 1467-9957
Publisher Wiley
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 86
Issue 4
Pages 417-445
Keywords Job turnover, Worker turnover, Hirings and separations
Public URL
Publisher URL
Additional Information This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Bellmann, L., Gerner, H.-D. and Upward, R. (2017), Job and Worker Turnover in German Establishments. The Manchester School. doi:10.1111/manc.12187 which has been published in final form at This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving.


You might also like

Downloadable Citations