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Tranexamic acid for hyperacute primary IntraCerebral Haemorrhage (TICH-2): an international randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 superiority trial

Sprigg, Nikola; Flaherty, Katie; Appleton, Jason P.; Al-Shahi Salman, Rustam; Bereczki, Daniel; Beridze, M.; Christensen, Hanne; Ciccone, Alfonso; Collins, Ronan; Czlonkowska, Anna; Dineen, Robert A.; Duley, Lelia; Egea-Guerrero, Juan Jose; England, Timothy J.; Krishnan, Kailash; Laska, Ann Charlotte; Law, Zhe Kang; Ozturk, Serefnur; Pocock, Stuart J.; Roberts, Ian; Robinson, Thompson G.; Roffe, Christine; Seiffge, David; Scutt, Polly; Thanabalan, Jegan; Werring, David; Whynes, David; Bath, Philip M.


Professor of Stroke Medicine

Katie Flaherty

Jason P. Appleton

Rustam Al-Shahi Salman

Daniel Bereczki

M. Beridze

Hanne Christensen

Alfonso Ciccone

Ronan Collins

Anna Czlonkowska

Lelia Duley

Juan Jose Egea-Guerrero

Kailash Krishnan

Ann Charlotte Laska

Zhe Kang Law

Serefnur Ozturk

Stuart J. Pocock

Ian Roberts

Thompson G. Robinson

Christine Roffe

David Seiffge

Polly Scutt

Jegan Thanabalan

David Werring

David Whynes

Stroke Association Professor of Stroke Medicine


Tranexamic acid (TXA) reduces death due to bleeding after trauma and post-partum haemorrhage. The aim was to assess if tranexamic acid reduces haematoma expansion and improves outcome in adults with stroke due to intracerebral 6 haemorrhage (ICH).
We undertook an international, randomised placebo-controlled trial in adults with intracerebral haemorrhage. Participants received 1g intravenous tranexamic acid bolus followed by an 8 hour 1g infusion, or matching placebo, within 8 hours of symptom onset. The primary outcome was functional status at day 90, measured by shift in the modified Rankin Scale (mRS), using ordinal logistic regression, with adjustment for stratification and minimisation criteria. All analyses were performed on an intention to treat basis. This trial is registered as ISRCTN93732214.
We recruited 2,325 participants (TXA 1161, placebo 1164) from 124 hospitals in 12 countries between 2013 and 2017. Treatment groups were well balanced at baseline. The primary outcome was determined for 2307 (99·2%) participants. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups for the primary outcome of functional status at day 90 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0·88, 95% CI 0·76-1·03, p=0·11). Although there were fewer deaths by day 7 in the TXA group (aOR 0·73, 95% CI 0·53-0·99, p=0·0406), there was no difference in case fatality at 90 days (adjusted hazard ratio 0·92, 95% CI 0·77 to 1·10, p =0·37). There were fewer serious adverse events after TXA vs. placebo by days 2 (p=0·0272), 7 (p=0·0200) and 90 (p=0·0393).
There was no significant difference in functional status 90 days after intracerebral haemorrhage with tranexamic acid, despite a reduction in early deaths and serious adverse events. Larger randomised trials are needed to confirm or refute a clinically significant treatment effect.


Sprigg, N., Flaherty, K., Appleton, J. P., Al-Shahi Salman, R., Bereczki, D., Beridze, M., …Bath, P. M. (2018). Tranexamic acid for hyperacute primary IntraCerebral Haemorrhage (TICH-2): an international randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 superiority trial. Lancet, 391(10135), 2107-2115.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Apr 19, 2018
Online Publication Date May 16, 2018
Publication Date 2018-05
Deposit Date May 9, 2018
Publicly Available Date May 16, 2018
Journal The Lancet
Print ISSN 0140-6736
Electronic ISSN 1474-547X
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 391
Issue 10135
Pages 2107-2115
Keywords Intracerebral haemorrhage; tranexamic acid; randomised controlled trial
Public URL
Publisher URL


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