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Mixed ice accretion on aircraft wings

Janjua, Zaid A.; Turnbull, Barbara; Hibberd, Stephen; Choi, Kwing-So


Zaid A. Janjua

Stephen Hibberd

Professor of Fluid Mechanics


Ice accretion is a problematic natural phenomenon that an effects a wide range of engineering applications including power cables, radio masts and wind turbines. Accretion on aircraft wings occurs when supercooled water droplets freeze instantaneously on impact to form rime ice or runback as water along the wing to form glaze ice. Most models to date have ignored the accretion of mixed ice, which is a combination of rime and glaze. A parameter we term the `freezing fraction', is defined as the fraction of a supercooled droplet that freezes on impact with the top surface of the accretion ice to explore the concept of mixed ice accretion. Additionally we consider different `packing densities' of rime ice, mimicking the different bulk rime densities observed in nature. Ice accretion is considered in four stages: rime, primary mixed, secondary mixed and glaze ice. Predictions match with existing models and experimental data in the limiting rime and glaze cases. The mixed ice formulation consequently however provides additional insight into the composition of the overall ice structure, which ultimately influences adhesion and ice thickness; and shows that for similar atmospheric parameter ranges, this simple mixed ice description leads to very different accretion rates. A simple one-dimensional energy balance was solved to show how this freezing fraction parameter increases with decrease in atmospheric temperature, with lower freezing fraction promoting glaze ice accretion.


Janjua, Z. A., Turnbull, B., Hibberd, S., & Choi, K. (in press). Mixed ice accretion on aircraft wings. Physics of Fluids, 30(2),

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jan 4, 2018
Online Publication Date Feb 19, 2018
Deposit Date Jan 5, 2018
Publicly Available Date Feb 19, 2018
Journal Physics of Fluids
Print ISSN 1070-6631
Electronic ISSN 1070-6631
Publisher AIP Publishing
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 30
Issue 2
Keywords mixed ice, aircraft wings, freezing fraction, glaze, rime
Public URL
Publisher URL
Copyright Statement Copyright information regarding this work can be found at the following address: http://eprints.nottingh.../end_user_agreement.pdf


manuscript.pdf (567 Kb)

Copyright Statement
Copyright information regarding this work can be found at the following address:

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