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Sex allocation, sex ratios and reproduction

Hardy, Ian C.W.; Boulton, Rebecca A.


Ian C.W. Hardy

Rebecca A. Boulton


J. Choe


Sex allocation theory provides a powerful framework for understanding a range of reproductive behavior, including the numerical sex ratio of the progeny that parents produce. Starting with evolutionary explanations for why many species have unbiased sex ratios, sex ratio theory has developed to account for the major exceptions and is now extremely detailed and sophisticated, due to an excellent interchange between model development and empirical testing. While sex ratios are a fascinating aspect of behavior in their own right, their study has also improved the general understanding of evolutionary processes and the potential to tackle important medical and ecological problems.


Hardy, I. C., & Boulton, R. A. (2019). Sex allocation, sex ratios and reproduction. In J. Choe (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Animal Behavior (464-471). (2nd edition). Elsevier.

Acceptance Date Feb 9, 2018
Online Publication Date Jan 25, 2019
Publication Date Jan 25, 2019
Deposit Date Feb 15, 2018
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Pages 464-471
Edition 2nd edition
Book Title Encyclopedia of Animal Behavior
ISBN 9780128132517
Keywords Environmental quality; Group structure; Local mate competition; Local resource competition; Local resource enhancement; Parental investment; Sex allocation; Sex determination; Sex
Public URL