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One-pot synthesis of micron-sized polybetaine particles: innovative use of supercritical carbon dioxide

Bassett, Simon P.; Birkin, Natasha A.; Jennings, James; Champman, Emma; O'Reilly, Rachel K.; Howdle, Steven M.; Willcock, Helen

Authors

Simon P. Bassett

Natasha A. Birkin

James Jennings

Emma Champman

Rachel K. O'Reilly

Helen Willcock



Abstract

Polybetaines exhibit unique properties combining anti-polyelectrolyte and low protein fouling behaviour, as well as biocompatibility. To date, the synthesis of polybetaine particles >50 nm has proved to be extremely challenging with standard emulsion and dispersion techniques being unsuccessful. Here we present the first reported synthesis of micron-sized, discrete cross-linked polybetaine particles, using polymerisation in scCO2 with methanol as a co-solvent. Discrete particles are produced only when the methanol is efficiently removed in situ using scCO2 extraction. A relatively high crosslinking agent initial concentration (10 wt%) was found to result in the most well defined particles, and particle integrity reduced as the crosslinking agent initial concentration was decreased. A monomer loading of between 3.0 × 10−2 mol L−1 and 1.8 × 10−1 mol L−1 resulted in discrete micron sized particles, with significant agglomoration occuring as the monomer loading was increased further. A spherical morphology and extremely low size dispersity was observed by SEM analysis for the optimised particles. The particles were readily re-dispersed in aqueous solution and light scattering measurements confirmed their low size dispersity.

Journal Article Type Article
Journal Polymer Chemistry
Print ISSN 1759-9954
Electronic ISSN 1759-9962
Publisher Royal Society of Chemistry
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 8
APA6 Citation Bassett, S. P., Birkin, N. A., Jennings, J., Champman, E., O'Reilly, R. K., Howdle, S. M., & Willcock, H. (in press). One-pot synthesis of micron-sized polybetaine particles: innovative use of supercritical carbon dioxide. Polymer Chemistry, 8, https://doi.org/10.1039/C7PY00455A
DOI https://doi.org/10.1039/C7PY00455A
Publisher URL http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlehtml/2017/py/c7py00455a
Copyright Statement Copyright information regarding this work can be found at the following address: http://eprints.nottingh.../end_user_agreement.pdf

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Copyright Statement
Copyright information regarding this work can be found at the following address: http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/end_user_agreement.pdf





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