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Shedding light on sporopollenin chemistry, with reference to UV reconstructions

Jardine, Phillip E.; Abernethy, Feargus A.J.; Lomax, Barry H.; Gosling, William D.; Fraser, Wesley T.

Authors

Phillip E. Jardine

Feargus A.J. Abernethy

Barry H. Lomax

William D. Gosling

Wesley T. Fraser



Abstract

Sporopollenin, which forms the outer wall of pollen and spores, contains a chemical signature of ultraviolet-B flux via concentrations of UV-B absorbing compounds (UACs), providing a proxy for reconstructing UV irradiance through time. Although Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy provides an efficient means of measuring UAC concentrations, nitrogen-containing compounds have the potential to bias the aromatic and hydroxyl bands used to quantify and standardise UAC abundances. Here, we explore the presence and possible influence of nitrogen in UV reconstruction via an FTIR study of Lycopodium spores from a natural shading gradient. We show that the UV-sensitive aromatic peak at 1510 cm‾¹ is clearly distinguishable from the amide II peak at 1550 cm‾¹, and the decrease in aromatic content with increased shading can be reconstructed using standardisation approaches that do not rely on the 3300 cm‾¹ hydroxyl band. Isolation of the sporopollenin results in the loss of nitrogen-related peaks from the FTIR spectra, while the aromatic gradient remains. This confirms the lack of nitrogen in sporopollenin and its limited potential for impacting on palaeo-UV reconstructions. FTIR is therefore an appropriate tool for quantifying UACs in spores and pollen, and information on UV flux should be obtainable from fossil or processed samples.

Citation

Jardine, P. E., Abernethy, F. A., Lomax, B. H., Gosling, W. D., & Fraser, W. T. (2017). Shedding light on sporopollenin chemistry, with reference to UV reconstructions. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 238, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.revpalbo.2016.11.014

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Nov 30, 2016
Online Publication Date Dec 3, 2016
Publication Date Mar 1, 2017
Deposit Date Dec 2, 2016
Publicly Available Date Dec 3, 2016
Journal Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology
Print ISSN 0034-6667
Electronic ISSN 0034-6667
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 238
DOI https://doi.org/10.1016/j.revpalbo.2016.11.014
Keywords Sporopollenin, Ultraviolet-B, Fourier Transform infrared microspectroscopy, Phenolic compounds, Lycopodium
Public URL https://nottingham-repository.worktribe.com/output/842933
Publisher URL http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S003466671630197X

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Copyright Statement
Copyright information regarding this work can be found at the following address: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0





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