Skip to main content

Research Repository

Advanced Search

Gentamicin versus ceftriaxone for the treatment of gonorrhoea (G-TOG trial): study protocol for a randomised trial

Brittain, Claire; Childs, Margaret; Duley, Lelia; Harding, Jan; Hepburn, Trish; Meakin, Garry; Montgomery, Alan A.; Tan, Wei Ghen; Ross, Jonathan D.C.


Claire Brittain

Margaret Childs

Lelia Duley

Jan Harding

Director, nottingham Clinical Trials Unit

Wei Ghen Tan

Jonathan D.C. Ross


Background: Gonorrhoea is a common sexually transmitted infection which causes genital pain and discomfort; in women it can also lead to pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility, and in men to epididymo-orchitis. Current treatment is with ceftriaxone, but there is increasing evidence of antimicrobial resistance which is reducing its effectiveness against gonorrhoea. A small, but increasing, number of patients have already been found to have highly resistant strains of gonorrhoea which has been associated with clinical failure. This trial aims to determine whether gentamicin is not clinically worse than ceftriaxone in the treatment of gonorrhoea.

Methods/design: This is a blinded, two-arm, multicentre, noninferiority randomised trial. Patients are eligible if they are aged 16–70 years with a diagnosis of genital, pharyngeal and/or rectal gonorrhoea. Exclusion criteria are: known concurrent sexually transmitted infection(s) (excluding chlamydia); bacterial vaginosis and/or Trichomonas vaginalis infection; contraindications or an allergy to gentamicin, ceftriaxone, azithromycin or lidocaine; pregnancy or breastfeeding; complicated gonorrhoeal infection; weight under 40 kg; use of ceftriaxone, gentamicin or azithromycin within the preceding 28 days. Randomisation is to receive a single intramuscular injection of either gentamicin or ceftriaxone, all participants receive 1 g oral azithromycin as standard treatment. The estimated sample size is 720 participants (noninferiority limit 5%).

The primary outcome is clearance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae at all infected sites by a negative Nucleic Acid Amplification Test, 2 weeks post treatment. Secondary outcomes include clinical resolution of symptoms, frequency of adverse events, tolerability of therapy, relationship between clinical effectiveness and antibiotic minimum inhibitory concentration for N. gonorrhoeae, and cost-effectiveness.

Discussion: The options for future treatment of gonorrhoea are limited. Results from this randomised trial will demonstrate whether gentamicin is not clinically worse than ceftriaxone for the treatment of gonorrhoea. This will inform clinical practice and policy for the treatment of gonorrhoea when current therapy with cephalosporins is no longer effective, or is contraindicated.


Brittain, C., Childs, M., Duley, L., Harding, J., Hepburn, T., Meakin, G., …Ross, J. D. (2016). Gentamicin versus ceftriaxone for the treatment of gonorrhoea (G-TOG trial): study protocol for a randomised trial. Trials, 17, Article 558.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Nov 5, 2016
Publication Date Nov 24, 2016
Deposit Date Mar 13, 2017
Publicly Available Date Mar 13, 2017
Journal Trials
Electronic ISSN 1745-6215
Publisher Springer Verlag
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 17
Article Number 558
Keywords Randomised trial, Gonorrhoea, Gentamicin, Ceftriaxone, Resistance, Treatment, Noninferiority
Public URL
Publisher URL
Related Public URLs


art%3A10.1186%2Fs13063-016-1683-8.pdf (677 Kb)

Copyright Statement
Copyright information regarding this work can be found at the following address:

You might also like

Downloadable Citations