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Planck 2015 results: XVI. Isotropy and statistics of the CMB

Ade, P.A.R.; Aghanim, N.; Akrami, Y.; Aluri, P.K.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Casaponsa, B.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Contreras, D.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Cruz, M.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Fantaye, Y.; Fergusson, J.; Fernandez-Cobos, R.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Frolov, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Gauthier, C.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huang, Z.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kim, J.; Kisner, T.S.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; Liu, H.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macías-Pérez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marinucci, D.; Maris, M.; Martin, P.G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mikkelsen, K.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, Adam; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Pant, N.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G.W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J.P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Rotti, A.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Trombetti, T.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zibin, J.P.; Zonca, A.

Authors

P.A.R. Ade

N. Aghanim

Y. Akrami

P.K. Aluri

M. Arnaud

M. Ashdown

J. Aumont

C. Baccigalupi

A.J. Banday

R.B. Barreiro

N. Bartolo

S. Basak

E. Battaner

K. Benabed

A. Benoît

A. Benoit-Lévy

J.-P. Bernard

M. Bersanelli

P. Bielewicz

J.J. Bock

A. Bonaldi

L. Bonavera

J.R. Bond

J. Borrill

F.R. Bouchet

F. Boulanger

M. Bucher

C. Burigana

R.C. Butler

E. Calabrese

J.-F. Cardoso

B. Casaponsa

A. Catalano

A. Challinor

A. Chamballu

H.C. Chiang

P.R. Christensen

S. Church

D.L. Clements

S. Colombi

L.P.L. Colombo

C. Combet

D. Contreras

F. Couchot

A. Coulais

B.P. Crill

M. Cruz

A. Curto

F. Cuttaia

L. Danese

R.D. Davies

R.J. Davis

P. de Bernardis

A. de Rosa

G. de Zotti

J. Delabrouille

F.-X. Désert

J.M. Diego

H. Dole

S. Donzelli

O. Doré

M. Douspis

A. Ducout

X. Dupac

G. Efstathiou

F. Elsner

T.A. Enßlin

H.K. Eriksen

Y. Fantaye

J. Fergusson

R. Fernandez-Cobos

F. Finelli

O. Forni

M. Frailis

A.A. Fraisse

E. Franceschi

A. Frejsel

A. Frolov

S. Galeotta

S. Galli

K. Ganga

C. Gauthier

T. Ghosh

M. Giard

Y. Giraud-Héraud

E. Gjerløw

J. González-Nuevo

K.M. Górski

S. Gratton

A. Gregorio

A. Gruppuso

J.E. Gudmundsson

F.K. Hansen

D. Hanson

D.L. Harrison

S. Henrot-Versillé

C. Hernández-Monteagudo

D. Herranz

S. R. Hildebrandt

E. Hivon

M. Hobson

W.A. Holmes

A. Hornstrup

W. Hovest

Z. Huang

K.M. Huffenberger

G. Hurier

A.H. Jaffe

T.R. Jaffe

W.C. Jones

M. Juvela

E. Keihänen

R. Keskitalo

J. Kim

T.S. Kisner

J. Knoche

M. Kunz

H. Kurki-Suonio

G. Lagache

A. Lähteenmäki

J.-M. Lamarre

A. Lasenby

M. Lattanzi

C.R. Lawrence

R. Leonardi

J. Lesgourgues

F. Levrier

M. Liguori

P.B. Lilje

M. Linden-Vørnle

H. Liu

M. López-Caniego

P.M. Lubin

J.F. Macías-Pérez

G. Maggio

D. Maino

N. Mandolesi

A. Mangilli

D. Marinucci

M. Maris

P.G. Martin

E. Martínez-González

S. Masi

S. Matarrese

P. McGehee

P.R. Meinhold

A. Melchiorri

L. Mendes

A. Mennella

M. Migliaccio

K. Mikkelsen

S. Mitra

M.-A. Miville-Deschênes

D. Molinari

A. Moneti

L. Montier

G. Morgante

D. Mortlock

ADAM MOSS Adam.Moss@nottingham.ac.uk
Assistant Professor

D. Munshi

J.A. Murphy

P. Naselsky

F. Nati

P. Natoli

C.B. Netterfield

H.U. Nørgaard-Nielsen

F. Noviello

D. Novikov

I. Novikov

C.A. Oxborrow

F. Paci

L. Pagano

F. Pajot

N. Pant

D. Paoletti

F. Pasian

G. Patanchon

T.J. Pearson

O. Perdereau

L. Perotto

F. Perrotta

V. Pettorino

F. Piacentini

M. Piat

E. Pierpaoli

D. Pietrobon

S. Plaszczynski

E. Pointecouteau

G. Polenta

L. Popa

G.W. Pratt

G. Prézeau

S. Prunet

J.-L. Puget

J.P. Rachen

R. Rebolo

M. Reinecke

M. Remazeilles

C. Renault

A. Renzi

I. Ristorcelli

G. Rocha

C. Rosset

M. Rossetti

A. Rotti

G. Roudier

J.A. Rubiño-Martín

B. Rusholme

M. Sandri

D. Santos

M. Savelainen

G. Savini

D. Scott

M.D. Seiffert

E.P.S. Shellard

T. Souradeep

L.D. Spencer

V. Stolyarov

R. Stompor

R. Sudiwala

R. Sunyaev

D. Sutton

A.-S. Suur-Uski

J.-F. Sygnet

J.A. Tauber

L. Terenzi

L. Toffolatti

M. Tomasi

M. Tristram

T. Trombetti

M. Tucci

J. Tuovinen

L. Valenziano

J. Valiviita

B. Van Tent

P. Vielva

F. Villa

L.A. Wade

B.D. Wandelt

I.K. Wehus

D. Yvon

A. Zacchei

J.P. Zibin

A. Zonca



Abstract

We test the statistical isotropy and Gaussianity of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies using observations made by the Planck satellite. Our results are based mainly on the full Planck mission for temperature, but also include some polarization measurements. In particular, we consider the CMB anisotropy maps derived from the multi-frequency Planck data by several component-separation methods. For the temperature anisotropies, we find excellent agreement between results based on these sky maps over both a very large fraction of the sky and a broad range of angular scales, establishing that potential foreground residuals do not affect our studies. Tests of skewness, kurtosis, multi-normality, N-point functions, and Minkowski functionals indicate consistency with Gaussianity, while a power deficit at large angular scales is manifested in several ways, for example low map variance. The results of a peak statistics analysis are consistent with the expectations of a Gaussian random field. The “Cold Spot” is detected with several methods, including map kurtosis, peak statistics, and mean temperature profile. We thoroughly probe the large-scale dipolar power asymmetry, detecting it with several independent tests, and address the subject of a posteriori correction. Tests of directionality suggest the presence of angular clustering from large to small scales, but at a significance that is dependent on the details of the approach. We perform the first examination of polarization data, finding the morphology of stacked peaks to be consistent with the expectations of statistically isotropic simulations. Where they overlap, these results are consistent with the Planck 2013 analysis based on the nominal mission data and provide our most thorough view of the statistics of the CMB fluctuations to date.

Citation

Ade, P., Aghanim, N., Akrami, Y., Aluri, P., Arnaud, M., Ashdown, M., …Zonca, A. (2016). Planck 2015 results: XVI. Isotropy and statistics of the CMB. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 594, https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201526681

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Sep 7, 2015
Online Publication Date Sep 20, 2016
Publication Date 2016-10
Deposit Date May 2, 2017
Publicly Available Date May 2, 2017
Journal Astronomy & Astrophysics
Electronic ISSN 1432-0746
Publisher EDP Open
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 594
Article Number A16
DOI https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201526681
Keywords cosmology: observations; cosmic background radiation; polarization; methods: data analysis; methods: statistical
Public URL http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/id/eprint/42446
Publisher URL http://www.aanda.org/articles/aa/abs/2016/10/aa26681-15/aa26681-15.html
Copyright Statement Copyright information regarding this work can be found at the following address: http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/end_user_agreement.pdf
Additional Information © ESO, 2016

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Copyright Statement
Copyright information regarding this work can be found at the following address: http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/end_user_agreement.pdf





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