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Understanding bottom-up continuous hydrothermal synthesis of nanoparticles using empirical measurement and computational simulation

Sierra-Pallares, José; Huddle, Thomas; García-Serna, Juan; Alonso, Esther; Mato, Fidel; Shvets, Igor; Luebben, Olaf; Cocero, María José; Lester, Edward

Authors

José Sierra-Pallares

Thomas Huddle

Juan García-Serna

Esther Alonso

Fidel Mato

Igor Shvets

Olaf Luebben

María José Cocero



Abstract

Continuous hydrothermal synthesis was highlighted in a recent review as an enabling technology for the production of nanoparticles. In recent years, it has been shown to be a suitable reaction medium for the synthesis of a wide range of nanomaterials. Many single and complex nanomaterials such as metals, metal oxides, doped oxides, carbonates, sulfides, hydroxides, phosphates, and metal organic frameworks can be formed using continuous hydrothermal synthesis techniques. This work presents a methodology to characterize continuous hydrothermal flow systems both experimentally and numerically, and to determine the scalability of a counter current supercritical water reactor for the large scale production (>1,000 T·year–1) of nanomaterials. Experiments were performed using a purpose-built continuous flow rig, featuring an injection loop on a metal salt feed line, which allowed the injection of a chromophoric tracer. At the system outlet, the tracer was detected using UV/Vis absorption, which could be used to measure the residence time distribution within the reactor volume. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations were also conducted using a modeled geometry to represent the experimental apparatus. The performance of the CFD model was tested against experimental data, verifying that the CFD model accurately predicted the nucleation and growth of the nanomaterials inside the reactor.

Citation

Sierra-Pallares, J., Huddle, T., García-Serna, J., Alonso, E., Mato, F., Shvets, I., …Lester, E. (in press). Understanding bottom-up continuous hydrothermal synthesis of nanoparticles using empirical measurement and computational simulation. Nano Research, 9(11), https://doi.org/10.1007/s12274-016-1215-6

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jul 13, 2016
Online Publication Date Aug 25, 2016
Deposit Date Mar 2, 2017
Publicly Available Date Mar 2, 2017
Journal Nano Research
Print ISSN 1998-0124
Electronic ISSN 1998-0000
Publisher Springer Verlag
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 9
Issue 11
DOI https://doi.org/10.1007/s12274-016-1215-6
Keywords Nanoparticle, Computational fluid, Dynamics, Synthesis, Supercritical, Inorganics
Public URL http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/id/eprint/41016
Publisher URL http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12274-016-1215-6
Copyright Statement Copyright information regarding this work can be found at the following address: http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/end_user_agreement.pdf
Additional Information The final publication is available at Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12274-016-1215-6

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Copyright Statement
Copyright information regarding this work can be found at the following address: http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/end_user_agreement.pdf





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