Rianne M. van der Linde
Patterns and persistence of behavioural and psychological symptoms in those with cognitive impairment: the importance of apathy
van der Linde, Rianne M.; Matthews, Fiona E.; Dening, Tom; Brayne, Carol
Fiona E. Matthews
TOM DENING Tom.Dening@nottingham.ac.uk
Clinical Professor in Dementia Research
To study the stability and emergence of a range of behavioural and psychological symptoms (BPS), their association with mortality and the effect of covariates on these transitions in a population-based study of cognitively impaired older people with a long follow-up period and large sample size, with a particular focus on apathy.
Data were from a population-based, longitudinal cohort study of ageing. Interviews were conducted at 0, 2, 6, 8 and 10 years with 3626 participants aged 65+. The persistence of 11 BPS and their association with mortality in those with cognitive impairment (MMSE 25 or below) was investigated using multi-state models, allowing us to take into account estimations of the probability of transitions that occurred in the time between interviews.
Most BPS were persistent. Apathy was one of the most stable symptoms; in those with apathy, the probability of still having apathy after 1 year is 62%. Apathy, sleep problems, depression, irritability and wandering were most likely to develop. BPS are associated with mortality; in those with apathy, mortality is 3.1 times more likely than in those without apathy. Low cognitive function and dementia were associated with emergence of new symptoms.
This population-based, multi-centre study with a follow-up period of 10 years showed that BPS are associated with mortality and most symptoms are persistent. Apathy was characterised by a high prevalence, a high persistence and a strong association with mortality, and has a negative impact on disability, management of other disease and caregiver burden.
|Journal Article Type||Article|
|Journal||International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry|
|Peer Reviewed||Peer Reviewed|
|APA6 Citation||van der Linde, R. M., Matthews, F. E., Dening, T., & Brayne, C. (in press). Patterns and persistence of behavioural and psychological symptoms in those with cognitive impairment: the importance of apathy. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, https://doi.org/10.1002/gps.4464|
|Keywords||Behavioural and psychological symptoms; cognitive impairment; apathy; cohort study|
|Copyright Statement||Copyright information regarding this work can be found at the following address: http://eprints.nottingh.../end_user_agreement.pdf|
|Additional Information||This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: van der Linde, R. M., Matthews, F. E., Dening, T., and Brayne, C. (2016) Patterns and persistence of behavioural and psychological symptoms in those with cognitive impairment: the importance of apathy. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry, doi: 10.1002/gps.4464, which has been published in final form at http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gps.4464. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving.|
VanderLinde IJGP apathy_Revised Paper - changes accepted.pdf
Copyright information regarding this work can be found at the following address: http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/end_user_agreement.pdf
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