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Patterns and persistence of behavioural and psychological symptoms in those with cognitive impairment: the importance of apathy

van der Linde, Rianne M.; Matthews, Fiona E.; Dening, Tom; Brayne, Carol

Authors

Rianne M. van der Linde

Fiona E. Matthews

TOM DENING Tom.Dening@nottingham.ac.uk
Clinical Professor in Dementia Research

Carol Brayne



Abstract

Objective
To study the stability and emergence of a range of behavioural and psychological symptoms (BPS), their association with mortality and the effect of covariates on these transitions in a population-based study of cognitively impaired older people with a long follow-up period and large sample size, with a particular focus on apathy.

Methods
Data were from a population-based, longitudinal cohort study of ageing. Interviews were conducted at 0, 2, 6, 8 and 10 years with 3626 participants aged 65+. The persistence of 11 BPS and their association with mortality in those with cognitive impairment (MMSE 25 or below) was investigated using multi-state models, allowing us to take into account estimations of the probability of transitions that occurred in the time between interviews.

Results
Most BPS were persistent. Apathy was one of the most stable symptoms; in those with apathy, the probability of still having apathy after 1 year is 62%. Apathy, sleep problems, depression, irritability and wandering were most likely to develop. BPS are associated with mortality; in those with apathy, mortality is 3.1 times more likely than in those without apathy. Low cognitive function and dementia were associated with emergence of new symptoms.

Conclusions
This population-based, multi-centre study with a follow-up period of 10 years showed that BPS are associated with mortality and most symptoms are persistent. Apathy was characterised by a high prevalence, a high persistence and a strong association with mortality, and has a negative impact on disability, management of other disease and caregiver burden.

Journal Article Type Article
Journal International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Print ISSN 0885-6230
Electronic ISSN 0885-6230
Publisher Wiley
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
APA6 Citation van der Linde, R. M., Matthews, F. E., Dening, T., & Brayne, C. (in press). Patterns and persistence of behavioural and psychological symptoms in those with cognitive impairment: the importance of apathy. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, https://doi.org/10.1002/gps.4464
DOI https://doi.org/10.1002/gps.4464
Keywords Behavioural and psychological symptoms; cognitive impairment; apathy; cohort study
Publisher URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gps.4464
Copyright Statement Copyright information regarding this work can be found at the following address: http://eprints.nottingh.../end_user_agreement.pdf
Additional Information This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: van der Linde, R. M., Matthews, F. E., Dening, T., and Brayne, C. (2016) Patterns and persistence of behavioural and psychological symptoms in those with cognitive impairment: the importance of apathy. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry, doi: 10.1002/gps.4464, which has been published in final form at http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gps.4464. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving.

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VanderLinde IJGP apathy_Revised Paper - changes accepted.pdf (490 Kb)
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Copyright Statement
Copyright information regarding this work can be found at the following address: http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/end_user_agreement.pdf





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