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nIFTy galaxy cluster simulations – I. Dark matter and non-radiative models


Federico Sembolini

Gustavo Yepes

Frazer R. Pearce

Alexander Knebe

Scott T. Kay

Chris Power

Weiguang Cui

Alexander M. Beck

Stefano Borgani

Claudio Dalla Vecchia


Pascal Jahan Elahi

Sean February

Shuiyao Huang

Alex Hobbs

Neal Katz

Erwin Lau

Ian G. McCarthy

Giuseppe Murante

Daisuke Nagai

Kaylea Nelson

Richard D. A. Newton

Valentin Perret

Ewald Puchwein

Justin I. Read

Alexandro Saro

Joop Schaye

Romain Teyssier

Robert J. Thacker


We have simulated the formation of a galaxy cluster in a ? cold dark matter universe using 13 different codes modelling only gravity and non-radiative hydrodynamics (RAMSES, ART, AREPO, HYDRA and nine incarnations of GADGET). This range of codes includes particle-based, moving and fixed mesh codes as well as both Eulerian and Lagrangian fluid schemes. The various GADGET implementations span classic and modern smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) schemes. The goal of this comparison is to assess the reliability of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of clusters in the simplest astrophysically relevant case, that in which the gas is assumed to be non-radiative. We compare images of the cluster at z = 0, global properties such as mass and radial profiles of various dynamical and thermodynamical quantities. The underlying gravitational framework can be aligned very accurately for all the codes allowing a detailed investigation of the differences that develop due to the various gas physics implementations employed. As expected, the mesh-based codes RAMSES, ART and AREPO form extended entropy cores in the gas with rising central gas temperatures. Those codes employing classic SPH schemes show falling entropy profiles all the way into the very centre with correspondingly rising density profiles and central temperature inversions. We show that methods with modern SPH schemes that allow entropy mixing span the range between these two extremes and the latest SPH variants produce gas entropy profiles that are essentially indistinguishable from those obtained with grid-based methods.


Sembolini, F., Yepes, G., Pearce, F. R., Knebe, A., Kay, S. T., Power, C., …Thacker, R. J. (in press). nIFTy galaxy cluster simulations – I. Dark matter and non-radiative models. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 457(4),

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jan 28, 2016
Online Publication Date Feb 10, 2016
Deposit Date Sep 8, 2016
Publicly Available Date Sep 8, 2016
Journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Print ISSN 0035-8711
Electronic ISSN 1365-2966
Publisher Oxford University Press
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 457
Issue 4
Keywords Methods: numerical - galaxies: haloes - cosmology: theory - dark matter
Public URL
Publisher URL
Additional Information This article has been accepted for publication in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society ©2016 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.


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