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Pharmacological analysis and structure determination of 7-methylcyanopindolol–bound b1-adrenergic receptor

Sato, Tomomi; Baker, Jillian G.; Warne, Tony; Brown, Giles A.; Leslie, Andrew; Congreve, Miles; Tate, Christopher G.

Pharmacological analysis and structure determination of 7-methylcyanopindolol–bound b1-adrenergic receptor Thumbnail


Authors

Tomomi Sato

JILLIAN BAKER jillian.baker@nottingham.ac.uk
Professor of Drug Discovery and Respiratory Medicine

Tony Warne

Giles A. Brown

Andrew Leslie

Miles Congreve

Christopher G. Tate



Abstract

Comparisons between structures of the b1-adrenergic receptor (AR) bound to either agonists, partial agonists, or weak partial agonists led to the proposal that rotamer changes of Ser5.46, coupled to a contraction of the binding pocket, are sufficient to increase the probability of receptor activation. (RS)-4-[3 (tertbutylamino)-2-hydroxypropoxy]-1H-indole-2 carbonitrile (cyanopindolol) is a weak partial agonist of b1AR and, based on the hypothesis above, we predicted that the addition of a methyl group to form 4-[(2S)-3 (tert-butylamino)-2-hydroxypropoxy]-7-methyl-1H-indole-2 carbonitrile (7-methylcyanopindolol) would dramatically reduce its efficacy. An eight-step synthesis of 7- methylcyanopindolol was developed and its pharmacology was analyzed. 7-Methylcyanopindolol bound with similar affinity to cyanopindolol to both b1AR and b2AR. As predicted, the efficacy of 7-methylcyanopindolol was reduced significantly compared with cyanopindolol, acting as a very weak partial agonist of turkey b1AR and an inverse agonist of human b2AR. The structure of 7-methylcyanopindolol–bound b1AR was determined to 2.4-Å resolution and found to be virtually identical to the structure of cyanopindolol-bound b1AR. The major differences in the orthosteric binding pocket are that it has expanded by 0.3 Å in 7-methylcyanopindolol–bound b1AR and the hydroxyl group of Ser5.46 is positioned 0.8 Å further from the ligand, with respect to the position of the Ser5.46 side chain in cyanopindololbound b1AR. Thus, the molecular basis for the reduction in efficacy of 7 methylcyanopindolol compared with cyanopindolol may be regarded as the opposite of the mechanism proposed for the increase in efficacy of agonists compared with antagonists.

Citation

Sato, T., Baker, J. G., Warne, T., Brown, G. A., Leslie, A., Congreve, M., & Tate, C. G. (2015). Pharmacological analysis and structure determination of 7-methylcyanopindolol–bound b1-adrenergic receptor. Molecular Pharmacology, 88(6), https://doi.org/10.1124/mol.115.101030

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Sep 17, 2015
Publication Date Dec 31, 2015
Deposit Date Feb 22, 2017
Publicly Available Date Feb 22, 2017
Journal Molecular Pharmacology
Print ISSN 0026-895X
Electronic ISSN 1521-0111
Publisher American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 88
Issue 6
DOI https://doi.org/10.1124/mol.115.101030
Public URL https://nottingham-repository.worktribe.com/output/768381
Publisher URL http://molpharm.aspetjournals.org/content/88/6/1024