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Oral processing of low water content foods: a development to Hutchings and Lillford’s breakdown path

Hawthornethwaite, David; Ramjan, Yaneez; Rosenthal, Andrew J.


David Hawthornethwaite

Yaneez Ramjan

Andrew J. Rosenthal


The “hard to swallow” phenomenon previously reported for peanut paste has been investigated for other oil seed butters. The Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS) technique showed similar findings, adding to the list of materials which do not follow Hutchings and Lillford’s break down path (Journal of Texture Studies 19: 103-115). From our data we propose a modification to the Hutchings and Lillford model which allows for initial hydration of dry foods. The model holds well for oil seed pastes and may also help to explain the behaviour of some dry, carbohydrate rich, foods previously constrained to fit extant models.

Since TDS does not measure the magnitude of an attribute, we undertook Time Intensity studies to assess stickiness of peanut pastes during oral processing. In the absence of another attribute becoming dominant, the intensity of sticky/cohesive sensations may remain paramount but diminish in intensity, prior to swallowing.


Hawthornethwaite, D., Ramjan, Y., & Rosenthal, A. J. (2015). Oral processing of low water content foods: a development to Hutchings and Lillford’s breakdown path. Journal of Texture Studies, 46(3),

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Apr 27, 2015
Online Publication Date May 27, 2015
Publication Date Jun 11, 2015
Deposit Date Nov 11, 2016
Publicly Available Date Nov 11, 2016
Journal Journal of Texture Studies
Print ISSN 0022-4901
Electronic ISSN 1745-4603
Publisher Wiley
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 46
Issue 3
Keywords Dry foods; Low water content; Oral processing; Hutchings and Lillford’s break down path; Temporal dominance of sensations; Hard to swallow oil seed paste
Public URL
Publisher URL
Additional Information This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Hawthornthwaite, D., Ramjan, Y. and Rosenthal, A. (2015), Oral Processing of Low Water Content Foods – A Development to Hutchings and Lillford's Breakdown Path. J Texture Stud, 46: 212–218. doi:10.1111/jtxs.12126, which has been published in final form at This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving.


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