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Characterisation of soot in oil from a gasoline direct injection engine using Transmission Electron Microscopy

La Rocca, A.; Bonatesta, F.; Fay, M.W.; Campanella, F.

Authors

F. Bonatesta

F. Campanella



Abstract

In this work, an investigation of soot-in-oil samples drawn from the oil sump of a gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine was carried out. Soot particulate was characterised in terms of size, distribution and shape of the agglomerates, and internal structure of the primary particles. The test engine was a 1.6l modern light-duty EURO IV engine operated at speed between 1600 and 3700rev/min, and torque between 30and120Nm.After a double oil-flushing procedure the engine was operated for 30h. Oil samples were drawn from the sump and prepared for Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and High resolution TEM analysis (HRTEM) by a combination of solvent extraction, centrifugation and diethyl ether bathing. Soot agglomerates were measured in terms of their skeleton length and width, and fractal dimension. The mean skeleton length and width were 153nm and 59nm respectively. The fractal dimension was calculated using an iterative method and the mean value was found to be 1.44. The primary particles were found to be spherical in shape with some irregularities and presented an average diameter of 36nm with a mode of 32nm and standard deviation of 13nm.The majority of particles showed an inner core and outer shell similar to diesel soot, although an amorphous layer was also clearly visible.

Citation

La Rocca, A., Bonatesta, F., Fay, M., & Campanella, F. (2015). Characterisation of soot in oil from a gasoline direct injection engine using Transmission Electron Microscopy. Tribology International, 86, 77-84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.triboint.2015.01.025

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jan 31, 2015
Online Publication Date Feb 9, 2015
Publication Date Jun 30, 2015
Deposit Date Jul 13, 2017
Publicly Available Date Jul 13, 2017
Journal Tribology International
Print ISSN 0301-679X
Electronic ISSN 0301-679X
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 86
Pages 77-84
DOI https://doi.org/10.1016/j.triboint.2015.01.025
Keywords Gasoline soot; Lubrication oil; Nanoparticles; Transmission Electron Microscopy
Public URL http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/id/eprint/44145
Publisher URL http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301679X15000432?via%3Dihub
Copyright Statement Copyright information regarding this work can be found at the following address: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0

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Copyright Statement
Copyright information regarding this work can be found at the following address: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0





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