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Semen quality, testicular B-mode and Doppler ultrasound, and serum testosterone concentrations in dogs with established infertility

de Souza, M�rley B.; England, Gary C.W.; Mota Filho, Ant�nio Cavalcante; Ackermann, Camila Louise; Sousa, Carmen Vl�dia S.; de Carvalho, Gabriela G.; Silva, Herlon Victor Redrigues; Pinto, Jos� N.; Linhares, Jussiara C.S.; Oba, Eunice; da Silva, Lucia Daniel Machado

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Authors

M�rley B. de Souza

Gary C.W. England

Ant�nio Cavalcante Mota Filho

Camila Louise Ackermann

Carmen Vl�dia S. Sousa

Gabriela G. de Carvalho

Herlon Victor Redrigues Silva

Jos� N. Pinto

Jussiara C.S. Linhares

Eunice Oba

Lucia Daniel Machado da Silva



Abstract

Retrospective examination of breeding records enabled the identification of 10 dogs of normal fertility and 10 dogs with established infertility of at least 12 months of duration. Comparisons of testicular palpation, semen evaluation, testicular ultrasound examination, Doppler ultrasound measurement of testicular artery blood flow, and measurement of serum testosterone concentration were made between the two groups over weekly examinations performed on three occasions. There were no differences in testicular volume (cm3) between the two groups (fertile right testis = 10.77 ± 1.66; fertile left testis = 12.17 ± 2.22); (infertile right testis = 10.25 ± 3.33; infertile left testis = 11.37 ± 3.30), although the infertile dogs all had subjectively softer testes compared with the fertile dogs. Infertile dogs were either azoospermic or when they ejaculated, they had lower sperm concentration, sperm motility, and percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa than fertile dogs. Furthermore, infertile dogs had reduced sperm membrane integrity measured via the hypoosmotic swelling test. Infertile dogs had significantly lower basal serum testosterone concentrations (1.40 ± 0.62 ng/mL) than fertile dogs (1.81 ± 0.87 ng/mL; P < 0.05). There were subjective differences in testicular echogenicity in some of the infertile dogs, and important differences in testicular artery blood flow with lower peak systolic and end-diastolic velocities measured in the distal supratesticular artery, marginal testicular artery, and intratesticular artery of infertile dogs (P < 0.05). Notably, resistance index and pulsatility index did not differ between infertile and fertile dogs. These findings report important differences between infertile and fertile dogs which may be detected within an expanded breeding soundness examination.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date May 19, 2015
Online Publication Date May 27, 2015
Deposit Date Nov 23, 2016
Publicly Available Date Nov 23, 2016
Journal Theriogenology
Print ISSN 0093-691X
Electronic ISSN 1879-3231
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 84
Issue 5
DOI https://doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2015.05.015
Keywords Ultrasonography; Pulse-wave Doppler; Dog; Testis; Infertility
Public URL https://nottingham-repository.worktribe.com/output/751255
Publisher URL http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0093691X15002794

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