Skip to main content

Research Repository

Advanced Search

Electric vehicle routing problem with flexible deliveries


Mir Ehsan Hesam Sadati


Growing concerns about the climate change have forced governments to initiate tighter environmental regulations and tougher emission reduction targets, increasing the interest on electromobility. Logistics operators started employing electric vehicles (EVs) and must face new operational planning challenges. Moreover, with an ever-growing interest in e-commerce, parcel delivery is taking new shapes by offering flexible delivery options to the customers. To mitigate these issues, we introduce the Electric Vehicle Routing Problem with Flexible Deliveries (EVRP-FD), where the customers are served using a fleet of EVs that can recharge their batteries along their routes. In this problem, a customer may specify different delivery locations for different time windows. Our objective is to serve the customers while minimising the total travelled distance using minimum number of vehicles. We first give the mathematical model and then develop a hybrid Variable Neighbourhood Search coupled with Tabu Search by proposing new mechanisms to solve the problem effectively. Then, we verify the performance of our algorithm on instances from the literature. We also introduce new instances for the EVRP-FD and perform an extensive computational study to investigate the trade-offs associated with different operational factors. Finally, we present a case study in Nottingham, UK to provide further insights.


Sadati, M. E. H., Akbarighadikolaei, V., & Çatay, B. (2022). Electric vehicle routing problem with flexible deliveries. International Journal of Production Research, 60(13), 4268-4294.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jan 10, 2022
Online Publication Date Feb 15, 2022
Publication Date Jul 3, 2022
Deposit Date Feb 17, 2022
Publicly Available Date Feb 16, 2023
Journal International Journal of Production Research
Print ISSN 0020-7543
Electronic ISSN 1366-588X
Publisher Taylor & Francis Open
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 60
Issue 13
Pages 4268-4294
Keywords Electric vehicle routing problem; flexible deliveries; variable neighborhood search; granular tabu search; recharging
Public URL
Publisher URL


You might also like

Downloadable Citations