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Perspectives of patients, family members, health professionals and the public on the impact of COVID-19 on mental health

Gardiner, Evangeline; Baumgart, Amanda; Tong, Allison; Elliott, Julian H.; Azevedo, Luciano Cesar; Bersten, Andrew; Cervantes, Lilia; Chew, Derek P.; Cho, Yeoungjee; Crowe, Sally; Douglas, Ivor S.; Evangelidis, Nicole; Flemyng, Ella; Horby, Peter; Howell, Martin; Lee, Jaehee; Lorca, Eduardo; Lynch, Deena; Marshall, John C.; Gonzalez, Andrea Matus; McKenzie, Anne; Manera, Karine; Mehta, Sangeeta; Mer, Mervyn; Morris, Andrew Conway; Nseir, Saad; Povoa, Pedro; Reid, Mark; Sakr, Yasser; Shen, Ning; Smyth, Alan R.; Snelling, Tom; Strippoli, Giovanni F. M; Teixeira-Pinto, Armando; Torres, Antoni; Viecelli, Andrea K.; Webb, Steve; Williamson, Paula R.; Woc-Colburn, Laila; Zhang, Junhua; Craig, Jonathan C.

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Evangeline Gardiner

Amanda Baumgart

Allison Tong

Julian H. Elliott

Luciano Cesar Azevedo

Andrew Bersten

Lilia Cervantes

Derek P. Chew

Yeoungjee Cho

Sally Crowe

Ivor S. Douglas

Nicole Evangelidis

Ella Flemyng

Peter Horby

Martin Howell

Jaehee Lee

Eduardo Lorca

Deena Lynch

John C. Marshall

Andrea Matus Gonzalez

Anne McKenzie

Karine Manera

Sangeeta Mehta

Mervyn Mer

Andrew Conway Morris

Saad Nseir

Pedro Povoa

Mark Reid

Yasser Sakr

Ning Shen

Alan R. Smyth

Tom Snelling

Giovanni F. M Strippoli

Armando Teixeira-Pinto

Antoni Torres

Andrea K. Viecelli

Steve Webb

Paula R. Williamson

Laila Woc-Colburn

Junhua Zhang

Jonathan C. Craig


The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has seen a global surge in anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and stress.

This study aimed to describe the perspectives of patients with COVID-19, their family, health professionals, and the general public on the impact of COVID-19 on mental health.

A secondary thematic analysis was conducted using data from the COVID-19 COS project. We extracted data on the perceived causes and impact of COVID-19 on mental health from an international survey and seven online consensus workshops.

We identified four themes (with subthemes in parenthesis): anxiety amidst uncertainty (always on high alert, ebb and flow of recovery); anguish of a threatened future (intense frustration of a changed normality, facing loss of livelihood, trauma of ventilation, a troubling prognosis, confronting death); bearing responsibility for transmission (fear of spreading COVID-19 in public; overwhelming guilt of infecting a loved one); and suffering in isolation (severe solitude of quarantine, sick and alone, separation exacerbating grief).

We found that the unpredictability of COVID-19, the fear of long-term health consequences, burden of guilt, and suffering in isolation profoundly impacted mental health. Clinical and public health interventions are needed to manage the psychological consequences arising from this pandemic.


Gardiner, E., Baumgart, A., Tong, A., Elliott, J. H., Azevedo, L. C., Bersten, A., …Craig, J. C. (2022). Perspectives of patients, family members, health professionals and the public on the impact of COVID-19 on mental health. Journal of Mental Health, 31(4), 524-533.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Dec 6, 2021
Online Publication Date Jan 4, 2022
Publication Date Jan 4, 2022
Deposit Date Jan 30, 2022
Publicly Available Date Jan 5, 2023
Journal Journal of Mental Health
Print ISSN 0963-8237
Electronic ISSN 1360-0567
Publisher Taylor & Francis Open
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 31
Issue 4
Pages 524-533
Keywords Psychiatry and Mental health; General Medicine
Public URL
Publisher URL
Additional Information Peer Review Statement: The publishing and review policy for this title is described in its Aims & Scope.; Aim & Scope:; Received: 2021-03-23; Revised: 2021-11-24; Accepted: 2021-12-06; Published: 2022-01-04


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